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Activity for Charlie Brumbaugh‭

Type On... Excerpt Status Date
Edit Post #280929 Initial revision 1 day ago
Answer A: What are the pros and cons of a bear can vs an Ursack?
Ursacks - Significantly lighter 8oz vs 44oz for 10 liters of space. - Shrinks as food is eaten. - Not a large hard object in your backpack. Bear Canister - Legal to use in more places. - More bear-resistant, there was a case in Yosemite where the bears were rolling them off a cli...
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1 day ago
Edit Post #280928 Initial revision 1 day ago
Question What are the pros and cons of a bear can vs an Ursack?
There are basically two bear-resistant containers meant for storing food while backpacking, bear canisters and Ursacks. What are the pros and cons of each?
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1 day ago
Edit Post #280877 Initial revision 6 days ago
Answer A: How does powdered peanut butter compare to regular peanut butter for backpacking?
I have a standard 2 1/2 lb jar of peanut butter and I have one same size container of PB2 powdered peanut butter. - Bulk - Powdered Peanut Butter takes 3 times as much space as regular for the same amount of calories. - Weight - Powdered Peanut Butter - 131 Calories per Ounce - 4....
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6 days ago
Edit Post #280876 Initial revision 6 days ago
Question How does powdered peanut butter compare to regular peanut butter for backpacking?
I have heard of people using powdered instead of regular peanut butter for backpacking, mostly on the theory that it is lighter. How does powdered peanut butter compare to regular peanut butter?
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6 days ago
Edit Post #280724 Nominated for promotion 19 days ago
Edit Post #280724 Initial revision 19 days ago
Question 2021 - February - Rain Storms
[]()Rules that are always applicable are as follows: 1. One photo per answer, and no more than 5 answers per user per contest. 2. Post only photos taken by yourself/person with you. 3. All entries should include a line of text with the location, subject, and date (specificity is up to you). ...
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19 days ago
Edit Post #280568 Post edited:
26 days ago
Comment Post #280628 @manassehkatz, Here are the last 4 old posts to hit the front page, all have upvoted answers https://outdoors.codidact.com/posts/59371 https://outdoors.codidact.com/posts/41119 https://outdoors.codidact.com/posts/55172 https://outdoors.codidact.com/posts/44132
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27 days ago
Comment Post #280628 @manassehkatz most of the effected ones have answers
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27 days ago
Edit Post #280628 Initial revision 27 days ago
Question Downvoting old questions just because they are old needs to stop
It has not gone unnoticed that someone(s) have been downvoting imported questions as soon as they hit the front page regardless of whether they are good or bad questions otherwise. Question need to voted on by their quality not on whether they were asked/answered before a certain point in time.
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27 days ago
Edit Post #280568 Initial revision about 1 month ago
Answer A: What is the compatibility between Weaver and Picatinny railed mounting systems for scopes?
Weaver mounts will fit onto either Weaver or Picatinny rails, while Picatinny mounts are only guaranteed to fit onto Picatinny rails. As time has gone by this has become less and less of a problem as Picatinny rails have become the standard, not just for mounting scopes but also bipods and other a...
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about 1 month ago
Edit Post #280567 Initial revision about 1 month ago
Question What is the compatibility between Weaver and Picatinny railed mounting systems for scopes?
There are two main kinds of railed mounting systems for rifle scopes and some other types of rifle attachments like bipods or lights known as Weaver and Picatinny. What is the compatibility between the two systems?
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about 1 month ago
Edit Post #280402 Nominated for promotion about 2 months ago
Edit Post #54396 Nominated for promotion about 2 months ago
Edit Post #59770 Nominated for promotion about 2 months ago
Edit Post #59371 Post edited:
about 2 months ago
Edit Post #59371 Nominated for promotion about 2 months ago
Edit Post #280238 Nominated for promotion about 2 months ago
Edit Post #280238 Initial revision about 2 months ago
Question 2021 - January - Snow
[]()Rules that are always applicable are as follows: 1. One photo per answer, and no more than 5 answers per user per contest. 2. Post only photos taken by yourself/person with you. 3. All entries should include a line of text with the location, subject, and date (specificity is up to you). ...
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about 2 months ago
Edit Post #58129 Nominated for promotion 2 months ago
Edit Post #55172 Nominated for promotion 2 months ago
Edit Post #41119 Post edited:
2 months ago
Edit Post #55172 Post edited:
2 months ago
Edit Post #279646 Nominated for promotion 2 months ago
Edit Post #279890 Initial revision 2 months ago
Question Are there ice-skates that will strap to a full shank mountaineering boot?
I was hiking through the snow to a frozen alpine lake and it made me wonder if there were ice-skates that would strap directly to a mountaineering boot instead of being a completely separate boot? Seem like that would be lighter and is how ice-skates used to be made, are there any modern versions?...
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2 months ago
Edit Post #279771 Initial revision 3 months ago
Question How are Wilderness First Aid/Wilderness First Responder courses being done during Covid?
I need to take either a WFR recert or a WFA before July and am wondering how Covid is affecting them. Both types of classes usually have close contact between participants but I do know they are still running. What changes have been made to the classes due to Covid?
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3 months ago
Edit Post #44132 Post edited:
3 months ago
Edit Post #59255 Post edited:
3 months ago
Edit Post #58129 Post edited:
3 months ago
Edit Post #279681 Post edited:
3 months ago
Edit Post #279681 Initial revision 3 months ago
Question What are these shells found in a gravel bank along the South Platte?
While hiking about a quarter-mile from the South Platte river I found these shells in a gravel bank. Image alt text Image alt text Most but not all had turned white, and they were in what looked like a gravel bank/deposit but it was a good way from the river. Does anyone know what animals...
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3 months ago
Edit Post #279646 Initial revision 3 months ago
Question 2020 - December - Evergreen Trees
Rules that are always applicable are as follows: 1. One photo per answer, and no more than 5 answers per user per contest. 2. Post only photos taken by yourself/person with you. 3. All entries should include a line of text with the location, subject, and date (specificity is up to you). 4. ...
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3 months ago
Edit Post #279633 Initial revision 3 months ago
Answer A: What's this Spanish insect?
That looks like a Spanish Saddle Bush-cricket (Ephippigerida areolaria) of the Ephippiger genus. The coloration and the area are right and it looks like a female.
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3 months ago
Comment Post #279598 It looks like cricket or grasshopper, would be easier to look up if I read Spanish
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3 months ago
Edit Post #58129 Post edited:
3 months ago
Edit Post #54721 Post deleted 3 months ago
Edit Post #59745 Post edited:
3 months ago
Edit Post #39620 Post edited:
3 months ago
Comment Post #279380 Wait you think the system is bumping without changes? Because those were probably tag-only edits which are a change and do the bump the questions just like on SE.
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3 months ago
Edit Post #279385 Initial revision 3 months ago
Answer A: Stop bumping old imported posts with no-change edits
No. The point of this site is to build a resource for future visitors, not to generate interesting questions for people to answer. One of the major selling points of Codidact when considering moving here is that we didn't have to start from scratch and leave behind all of the content that we ha...
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3 months ago
Edit Post #279359 Initial revision 3 months ago
Question How to keep humans from stealing your food from the bear boxes in Yosemite Valley?
Some of the Yosemite Valley parking lots have communal bear boxes as do some of the trailheads because you are not supposed to store your extra food in your vehicle while you backpack. Bears can't get into the bear boxes, but humans can and I have had food go missing from one of the bear boxes bef...
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3 months ago
Edit Post #59702 Post edited:
3 months ago
Edit Post #41015 Post edited:
3 months ago
Edit Post #279348 Initial revision 3 months ago
Question Is there a reason for the seemingly over labeling gear in the UK with "unisex" ?
From this question and it's answers it looks like a lot of gear sold online in UK is label as "unisex" when it wouldn't be in the United State. For some gear like climbing harness labeling a harness as unisex makes sense, but for something like a cooking set or a rubber mallet or duffle bag, it's ...
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3 months ago
Comment Post #279196 https://outdoors.meta.stackexchange.com/questions/1309/how-does-a-question-get-bumped-without-any-apparent-activity
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3 months ago
Edit Post #279111 Post edited:
4 months ago
Edit Post #279110 Post edited:
4 months ago
Comment Post #279090 We have stopped importing content, that post was imported with the first batch and then bumped to the home page with an edit.
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4 months ago
Edit Post #59569 Post edited:
4 months ago
Edit Post #279057 Initial revision 4 months ago
Question In the United States, where would I find how a geological feature got its name?
In the US, there are plenty of interestingly named features along with lots of really repetitive ones. If I wanted to find out how a mountain/creek/river got its official name, where would I find that information?
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4 months ago
Edit Post #278918 Post edited:
4 months ago
Edit Post #278927 Post edited:
4 months ago
Edit Post #278927 Initial revision 4 months ago
Question How far apart should scope rings be on a picatinny rail?
I just got a new hunting rifle, scope, and rings. The rifle has a picatinny rail so I am not limited in ring placement the way I would be with some of the other mounting systems. Is there any advantage in placing the rings farther or closer apart?
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4 months ago
Edit Post #278926 Initial revision 4 months ago
Question 2020 - November - Emptiness
Rules that are always applicable are as follows: 1. One photo per answer, and no more than 5 answers per user per contest. 2. Post only photos taken by yourself/person with you. 3. All entries should include a line of text with the location, subject, and date (specificity is up to you). 4. ...
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4 months ago
Edit Post #278918 Initial revision 4 months ago
Question How would PLA stand up to cold and wet environments?
I am thinking about making some trekking pole baskets with my 3D printer in PLA, the originals having been worn out a long time ago. PLA has problems with heat, how does it do with cold? They won't cost very much but if they break right away it might be a problem.
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4 months ago
Edit Post #278917 Post edited:
4 months ago
Edit Post #278917 Initial revision 4 months ago
Question What difference is removing wolves from the list of animals protected by the Endangered Species Act in the US going to make?
Wolves are going to be removed from the list of animals protected by the Endangered Species Act (pending litigation). They were already delisted in Montana and Idaho and had a hunting season in Wyoming. What difference will this make assuming that it goes through?
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4 months ago
Edit Post #278882 Initial revision 4 months ago
Question Looking for a breathable rain shell?
I am looking for a new rain shell, - Must be breathable - Lightweight, will have other warm layers on underneath - Fairly inexpensive <$50 - Attached hood - Lightweight Does anybody have recommendations?
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4 months ago
Comment Post #278835 We imported a bunch of the old questions over and we now have hierarchal tags. Glad to see you move over
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4 months ago
Edit Post #278779 Initial revision 4 months ago
Question How long after a fire will the majority of the dead trees fall over?
There are several higher altitude forested areas that I go hiking that have burned this summer and I am wondering about how they will be next summer. Dead trees falling on you is always a concern when camping and there will be lots more in those areas once the fire is out. How long on average w...
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4 months ago
Edit Post #278723 Initial revision 4 months ago
Question When are cottontail rabbits most active?
If one were to go looking for cottontail rabbits, what time of day would be the best? I have noticed that it seems like there are more out and about in the afternoon than in the early morning.
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4 months ago
Comment Post #278684 Are you saying its unsuitable or that PETG/ABS/Nylon would be better? Most of the current development of 3d printed firearms is done in PLA or PLA+ and lasts 1,000 plus rounds
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4 months ago
Edit Post #278534 Initial revision 5 months ago
Answer A: How can I make a STL of a topo map perfectly round?
Here is how I made it much rounder, - Load the STL into Tinkercad. - Add a ruler to the workspace and choose the option to measure from center. - Center your stl and lock it. - Add a tube from the right menu and center it as well. - Set the number of sides on the tube to 64. - Increase the d...
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5 months ago
Edit Post #278489 Initial revision 5 months ago
Question How can I make a STL of a topo map perfectly round?
With theis KML circular generator, and this STL generator it is possible to create round 3D printed maps like this one. Image alt text However, the KML circle isn't perfectly round and that leeds to the bumps on the edges you can see. Is there a program where I can trim the original STL so t...
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5 months ago
Edit Post #278429 Initial revision 5 months ago
Question Is PLA suitable for outdoor gear use in the sun?
I have a 3d printer, and right now I am only using PLA which has a relatively low melting temperature (hot car in the sun or dishwasher would be enough to warp it). I am interested in printing some gear parts like trekking pole baskets or contoured maps or scope covers, is PLA going to warp from j...
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5 months ago
Edit Post #278373 Initial revision 5 months ago
Question 2020 - October - Fall Colors
Rules that are always applicable are as follows: 1. One photo per answer, and no more than 5 answers per user per contest. 2. Post only photos taken by yourself/person with you. 3. All entries should include a line of text with the location, subject, and date (specificity is up to you). 4. ...
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5 months ago
Edit Post #278239 Initial revision 5 months ago
Answer A: Where can I find the data to turn topographical maps into STL files?
There are two free sites I have found. 1. https://touchterrain.geol.iastate.edu/ Easy to use, will cut the box into tiles if you want to do the print in sections, lets you set how big your print bed is. 2. http://jthatch.com/Terrain2STL/ Simpler, with less settings but definately not as nice to...
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5 months ago
Edit Post #278153 Initial revision 5 months ago
Question Are there less crinkly emergency space blankets?
Was using a space blanket for warmth over the weekend and found it to be really crinkly, it was really noisy with any movement at all, even just breathing. Are there less noisy/crinkly space blankets?
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5 months ago
Edit Post #278127 Initial revision 5 months ago
Question Where can I find the data to turn topographical maps into STL files?
I am looking to 3d print some models of different places, it should be possible to take the same data that is used for making topographical maps and turn that into STL files which I can then 3d print. Where would I find that data or a website that will do the conversion for me?
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5 months ago
Edit Post #277942 Initial revision 6 months ago
Question What would lead to widely different air quality readings for the same area?
Lately there has been so much wildfire smoke that it was unpleasant if not quite harmful to go outside. I was looking at the weather websites for a forecast to try and predict when it would be better, and noticed that the current air quality readings would be quite different between websites. I wo...
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6 months ago
Edit Post #277869 Initial revision 6 months ago
Question 2020 - September - Flowing water
Rules that are always applicable are as follows: 1. One photo per answer, and no more than 5 answers per user per contest. 2. Post only photos taken by yourself/person with you. 3. All entries should include a line of text with the location, subject, and date (specificity is up to you). 4. ...
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6 months ago
Comment Post #277514 Doubling up only increases the protection by 5 DB https://outdoors.codidact.com/questions/58047
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6 months ago
Edit Post #277500 Initial revision 6 months ago
Answer A: What is the best method for storing a 'pre-mixed baking mix' in a camper for long periods?
Couple of suggestions, - Buy the smaller bags of Bisquick so that it can all be used at once with no leftovers and then just leave it in the original packaging. - If you are going with the bigger boxes, then bring along one large ziplock per box and reseal that after you are done. - For the ...
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6 months ago
Edit Post #277499 Initial revision 6 months ago
Question Why would hearing muffs be tested against continuous and not impulse noise?
Looking at a new pair of earmuffs that a NRR (Noise Reduction Rating) or 34 DB. However the fine print says that said rating is for continous noise and not impulse (like gunfire). Why would they be tested that way as a big reason people buy earmuffs is to protect their hearing while shooting?
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6 months ago
Comment Post #276934 @Monica yes, I was going to ask about changing the name to Gear/Trip recommendations, but hadn't gotten around to it yet.
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6 months ago
Edit Post #277333 Initial revision 6 months ago
Answer A: Is it safe to use a slightly rusty butane canister?
So long as it's still holding butane and not deeply pitted you should be fine. I would assume that if it was already cracked through the butane would have already escaped. They don't seem to be real expensive, so it might not be a bad idea to just get a new one and not worry about it.
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6 months ago
Edit Post #276934 Post undeleted 6 months ago
Edit Post #277212 Initial revision 7 months ago
Answer A: What do the 'delete' and 'close' options I see under a question do?
As of right now, nothing. It has been requested that they not show if a person can't use them, but I am not sure where that is on the list of priorities for development.
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7 months ago
Edit Post #277044 Initial revision 7 months ago
Question 2020 - August - Bugs
Rules that are always applicable are as follows: 1. One photo per answer, and no more than 5 answers per user per contest. 2. Post only photos taken by yourself/person with you. 3. All entries should include a line of text with the location, subject, and date (specificity is up to you). 4. ...
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7 months ago
Edit Post #277022 Initial revision 7 months ago
Question What is this small winged bug with a black spot on its back and dusky colored wings
I just saw this small winged bug out in a prairie would anyone know what kind it is? Top view Image alt text Side view
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7 months ago
Edit Post #276967 Post edited:
7 months ago
Edit Post #276967 Post edited:
7 months ago
Edit Post #276967 Initial revision 7 months ago
Question What would minks be looking for next to a seasonal irrigation canal after dark?
A few nights ago I saw some minks in the grass right next to a seasonal irrigation canal that is dry most of the year shortly after dark. The irrigation canal has no fish or crawdads in it, because its only full for a short time. Would the monks have been going down to it for water or would the...
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7 months ago
Edit Post #276964 Initial revision 7 months ago
Question What is the survival rate for baby cottontail rabbits between spring and winter?
As the summer goes on, the cottontail rabbits are getting bigger and at the same time I am seeing fewer of them, presumably as predators whittle their numbers down. What percentage of baby cottontail rabbits will survive until the winter?
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7 months ago
Edit Post #276934 Post edited:
7 months ago
Edit Post #276934 Initial revision 7 months ago
Question What is the easiest/most guaranteed way of getting into Yosemite Valley during the pandemic?
Due to Covid Yosemite National Park has restricted entry permits to lower the number of visitors. Currently to get in there are several options to enter, - Permits released well in advance. - Permits released several days in advance. - The YARTS bus - Private touring companies with permits W...
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7 months ago
Edit Post #276915 Initial revision 7 months ago
Question How many wag bags will the average person use per day?
Wag bags are used in areas where human waste has to be carried out. How many wag bags should a group pack per day given that plenty of people will try to avoid pooping in the outdoors and that number only goes up when they have to pack it out?
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7 months ago
Edit Post #57250 Post edited:
7 months ago
Edit Post #276648 Initial revision 8 months ago
Question What is the advantage of a running vest instead of a backpack for trail running?
I keep seeing trail runners who instead of a small light backpack, have a running vest with small front pockets and then one on the back. What is the advantage of a running vest over a small backpack for trail running?
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8 months ago
Edit Post #276611 Initial revision 8 months ago
Question Why would crows be dropping something into a pond?
This weekend I was sitting next to a pond and multiple times there was a crow who had something white in his mouth flying down from a tree to within several feet of the pond's surface, drop the white thing towards the middle of the pond and then fly off. What could the crow have been doing?
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8 months ago
Edit Post #59870 Post edited:
8 months ago
Edit Post #276511 Initial revision 8 months ago
Question 2020 - July - Fish
Rules that are always applicable are as follows: 1. One photo per answer, and no more than 5 answers per user per contest. 2. Post only photos taken by yourself/person with you. 3. All entries should include a line of text with the location, subject, and date (specificity is up to you). 4. ...
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8 months ago
Edit Post #276273 Initial revision 8 months ago
Question What makes pants "tactical"?
The last time I was in looking for fishing gear, they also had a bunch of "tactical" pants. They seemed like they would be decent pants for outdoor activities. What exactly makes a pair of pants "tactical"?
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8 months ago
Edit Post #276248 Initial revision 8 months ago
Question Are there any tricks to get a fish to commit to biting a fly?
The last time I went fishing, there were numerous times where I could tell that the fish were nibbling on the fly because it would move the strike indicator ever so slightly, but they wouldn't actually bite it. When this happens, are there any ways to encourage the fish to commit to biting the fly...
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8 months ago
Edit Post #276247 Initial revision 8 months ago
Question How far per record will a stationary GPS unit "travel"?
If you have tracking set on your GPS device and you forget to turn it off overnight, for instance, the track distance will continue to increase even though the device is not moving. What is happening is that each time it records its position it's slightly different, and over time that distance add...
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8 months ago
Edit Post #276204 Initial revision 8 months ago
Answer A: Why was comment deleted?
Because it's not constructive to ask that the OP provide information one could find with a simple Google search. Broadly speaking there are two types of experts, 1. People who already know the answer and what the question is about. 2. Users who are willing to do some research to answer the que...
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8 months ago
Edit Post #276186 Initial revision 8 months ago
Question Would an Ursack stop marmots?
I have an Ursack to keep my food safe from bears, but above treeline the problem isn't so much bears as it is marmots (who are unfortunately accustomed to people). Would an Ursack keep the marmots out of my food?
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8 months ago
Edit Post #275951 Post edited 9 months ago
Edit Post #74778 Post edited 9 months ago
Edit Post #275928 Post edited 9 months ago
Edit Post #74778 Post edited 9 months ago
Edit Post #275934 Initial revision 9 months ago
Answer A: Is pool maintenance on topic?
Yes that would be on topic. Maintaining or building things for outdoor activities like climbing walls or trails is on topic. Also, indoor versions of outdoor activities are also on topic.
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9 months ago
Edit Post #275918 Initial revision 9 months ago
Question Is there an app that will calculate the speed of sound at my current location and temperature?
The speed of sound changes with the weather, ammunition that is subsonic on a warm day may not be when its below freezing and that will make it a lot louder and less accurate. Bullets tends to destabilize when they slowdown below the speed of sound and the sonic boom is a large part of the noise of a...
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9 months ago
Edit Post #275908 Initial revision 9 months ago
Question In the United States, how steep can a handicap-accessible trail be?
Once in Yosemite Vally, I saw a sign that one fork of a paved trail was marked as handicap accessible because it was less steep than the other fork that led to the same destination. How steep/what grade is considered acceptable for a handicapped-accessible trail?
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9 months ago
Comment Post #275872 Plant identification is on topic, if you wanted to ask on main what kind of flower that is
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9 months ago
Edit Post #58653 Post edited:
9 months ago
Edit Post #275790 Post edited:
9 months ago
Edit Post #275790 Initial revision 9 months ago
Question 2020 - June - Flowers
Rules that are always applicable are as follows: 1. One photo per answer, and no more than 5 answers per user per contest. 2. Post only photos taken by yourself/person with you. 3. All entries should include a line of text with the location, subject, and date (specificity is up to you). 4. ...
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9 months ago
Edit Post #75057 Initial revision 9 months ago
Question Why would a skunk be chasing a human?
There is a video on reddit where a skunk is chasing a woman around. It's not spraying or even threatening to spray, but it's sure trying to keep up with her. Why would a skunk be doing that?
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9 months ago
Edit Post #75016 Post edited:
9 months ago
Edit Post #75016 Initial revision 9 months ago
Question At what point does a solar charger become more efficient weight wise than batteries?
For short trips, lithium-ion batteries to recharge your camera/phone/GPS make more sense. For something like the Appalachian Trail where batteries aren't going to last the whole trip, a solar charger would be needed although it won't replace batteries completely because some days are cloudy. On av...
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9 months ago
Edit Post #75009 Initial revision 9 months ago
Question How long does canned chicken repackaged into a ziplock last?
Rather than take a can of chicken while backpacking, it's possible to open the can, drain the juice and stick the meat into a ziplock which makes it much lighter and a ziplock is much more compact than a squashed can. It does need to be eaten fairly quickly into the trip to avoid spoiling. How lon...
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9 months ago
Edit Post #74989 Initial revision 9 months ago
Question How to improvise baskets for trekking poles?
The baskets on trekking poles are very useful while hiking through snow, however, they have a tendency to break. How would one improvise a fix in the outdoors for this?
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9 months ago
Edit Post #74988 Initial revision 9 months ago
Question What would the temperature rating of a space blanket/reflective tarp be?
Sleeping bags have temperature ratings that tell you the aproximate temperature that will be comfortable at. Reflective tarps do not have such ratings, probably because most people don't use them for sleeping, except in emergencies. However, they are much lighter than a sleeping bag and are warmer...
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9 months ago
Edit Post #74938 Initial revision 10 months ago
Question What are these small plants with red berries at around 9,000 ft in Colorado
I found these plants while hiking in Colorado, they are pretty small and have red berries slightly larger than peas. The area was old growth that had been burned in a fire at least a few years ago. Image alt text
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10 months ago
Edit Post #74913 Initial revision 10 months ago
Answer A: Are gardening questions on-topic?
I think so, there isn't another site that would take them instead for one thing and they wouldn't be all that different from existing questions. Usually, indoor versions of outdoor activities like fly tying or indoor climbing are just as on topic as the outdoor ones. Also, the original outdoors...
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10 months ago
Comment Post #74762 @Yvette I think it can be done manually and all it would take for that is know the id of your deleted user. If you remember any upvotes posts that you wrote on the old sites your id should be there
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10 months ago
Comment Post #74891 @Monica No, they don't. Being bitten by a horse is so very painful that it's not something that would be tolerated very long
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10 months ago
Edit Post #74892 Initial revision 10 months ago
Question How do you train a barn sour horse?
Sometimes a horse will become what is known as barn sour where all they want to do is hang around the stable/corrals and not go on rides. While on rides, they will keep trying to turn back and once heading back will try to get there quickly, which may not be what the rider wants. How do you train ...
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10 months ago
Edit Post #74891 Initial revision 10 months ago
Question How do you train a horse that bites humans not to?
Sometimes a horse/pony will bite humans. They bite each other to establish dominance and sometimes they will bite humans too. How do you train a horse to stop biting humans?
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10 months ago
Edit Post #74859 Post edited:
10 months ago
Edit Post #74859 Initial revision 10 months ago
Question What causes these big gathering of ants on a sidewalk?
Here is a whole bunch of ants gathered on a sidewalk around dusk, I have seen this before so its not totally uncommon. Clump of ants on a sidewalk What would lead to ants doing this?
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10 months ago
Edit Post #74815 Post edited:
10 months ago
Edit Post #74815 Initial revision 10 months ago
Question 2020 - May - Birds
Rules that are always applicable are as follows: 1. One photo per answer, and no more than 5 answers per user per contest. 2. Post only photos taken by yourself/person with you. 3. All entries should include a line of text with the location, subject, and date (specificity is up to you). 4. ...
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10 months ago
Edit Post #59229 Post edited:
10 months ago
Edit Post #74798 Post edited:
10 months ago
Edit Post #74798 Initial revision 10 months ago
Question When building a trail how is the length of the leg of a switchback decided?
I have done lots of hiking on trails with switchbacks and one thing I have noticed is that the length of the legs (how long you walk in one direction before switching back to the other) can vary widely. For instance the switchbacks in the Uintas were much longer than the switchbacks in the Ruby m...
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10 months ago
Edit Post #74778 Post edited 10 months ago
Edit Post #74791 Initial revision 10 months ago
Question When hiking up a steep hill without a trail, how do you determine the angle to switch back and forth?
On trails that go up steep hills, there are usually switchbacks where the trail goes first one way and then other, resulting in an overall less steep path. In the complete absence of a trail, how would I determine when I should switch back to the other direction and the optimum angle at which to g...
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10 months ago
Edit Post #58552 Question closed 10 months ago
Comment Post #74785 Rather than listing them all out, it should be fairly trivial to write a DELETE that nukes most of these, assuming the content hasn't been edited yet.
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10 months ago
Comment Post #74779 @ArtofCode correct
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10 months ago
Edit Post #74779 Initial revision 10 months ago
Question How to cut and seal backpack straps?
My backpack has straps that are way too long and I would like to shorten them, both to save weight and to make it more organized. How can I cut the straps and then seal them so the ends don't come unraveled, and should I sew them back to itself before sealing?
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10 months ago
Edit Post #74778 Post edited 10 months ago
Edit Post #74778 Post edited 10 months ago
Edit Post #74773 Initial revision 10 months ago
Answer A: What are some good ways to go outdoors in a city while safely social distancing?
I would suggest trying to get walks in either much earlier in the day or much later. There usually aren't very many people walking around at either sunrise or around sunset and there is usually at least a half an hour before sunrise and after sunset where there is enough light that a flashlight/h...
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10 months ago
Edit Post #74771 Post edited:
10 months ago
Edit Post #74771 Initial revision 10 months ago
Question Are bats harmed by fumes that gather in old mines?
Once in Nevada, I saw a sign on an old abandoned mine that said two things, - Stay out, mines have noxious fumes. - Stay out, bats live here. Both of those are good reasons to stay out, but it seems like a contradiction that there would be both fumes and bats so would the bats be harmed by t...
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10 months ago
Edit Post #74763 Post edited:
10 months ago
Edit Post #74763 Initial revision 10 months ago
Question Discord Server for chatting
Currently, there is not a Codidact specific chat system, so I went ahead and created a Discord server for us. - The invitation link is https://discord.gg/q5r2UjB Come hang out and chat and show off pictures and all the fun things that go on in chat.
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10 months ago
Answer A: Can putting nails in trees cause longterm health problems for the tree?
It can hurt the tree, and allow disease to enter through the hole. The other reason not to use nails in trees is for humans, cutting into a nail with a chainsaw can be dangerous. It probably won't kill the tree right away, there are living trees in Yosemite that were marked with large blazes by the ...
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about 1 year ago
Answer A: Can you Rappel with an Old Climbing Rope?
No, it&#x2019;s not worth the risk. Ropes aren&#x2019;t that expensive and if it breaks you could hurt yourself.
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about 1 year ago
Answer A: Do U.S. Wilderness areas allow bridges?
Yes, there are bridges in wilderness areas, this one was in the Wind River Range for example. On there other hand, there are restrictions on the tools used in a wilderness area such as not allowing power tools such as chainsaws.
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about 1 year ago
Answer A: How often should I clean my water bladder/reservoir while on a thru-hike, extended backpacking trip, or survival scenario?
On a trip where you are constantly using a bladder or water bottle where it's not sitting around, I would limit the cleaning to filling it up and then dumping it once before refilling. Mould takes time to grow, and on most trips, you are refilling at least once a day if not more. If you're in a par...
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about 1 year ago
Answer A: Do Garmin InReach plans include unlimited incoming messages?
Incoming messages count against the limit of text messages. Yes, any message sent back to your inReach device, including replies to preset messages, count against your monthly message allotment. Source But it will not cost the person sending you a message.
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about 1 year ago
Answer A: How do I remove 22lr bullet that's stuck to the bolt from the rifle?
22 Long Rifle bolt actions usually hold the bullet to the bolt with a spring. See the red arrow below. That spring is pushing against the cartridge to hold it in place. If you pull on the spring out away from the action it should come loose. Be careful not to bend the spring too much because then ...
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about 1 year ago
Answer A: Keeping a backpack from being stolen whilst sleeping in a tent
Storing the backpack inside instead of next to you won't provide a whole lot more security, in some crowded places where theft is more common it might be justified. Normally, if I am worried about people my common practice is to keep a low profile and try to camp out of sight. If on the other hand, ...
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about 1 year ago
Answer A: Osprey Atmos AG 50 raincover
Either should be fine, the M size may not fully cover it if you have the backpack stuffed to the max. On the other hand, as of right now it's a difference of 0.2 oz + $3 between the two, so if you are worried that much about it, then just get the bigger one. The other advantage of the bigger cover i...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: How to prevent strap slippage through buckle?
The solution on my backpack/bike helmet is a rubber band/hair tie like cord around the straps just below the buckle. In order to readjust the buckle you have to loosen the elastic cord around the straps and pull it away from the buckle. Not sure exactly why this works, but I haven't had any problems...
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over 1 year ago
Question Does less riverside vegetation lead to fewer fish?
On the river I have been fishing, there is a section where the road was rerouted, and another where a dam was torn out. In both cases, those sections of river have fewer bushes and trees and the grass is only slowly growing back. It makes it easier for flyfishing because my chances of getting caught...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Why do they turn the 9/11 Memorial Lights off for birds?
The basic idea of turning them off temporarily is to let the birds readjust to their surroundings. For reasons still unknown to science, artificial light attracts birds, from fledgling seabirds to migrating songbirds (it does the same to moths). Once captivated, disoriented birds may crash into w...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Why is there such a singular place for bird watching?
It's also a case of accessibility, birding really doesn't take any special equipment beyond say a pair of binoculars and birds will visit peoples backyards and bird feeders. While mammals can be shy or limited in area requiring trips to see them. Fish take special equipment to catch and mammals espec...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: What would the basic gear for fly fishing be?
The minimum gear would be, Fishing license. Fly fishing rod. Preloaded reel with both backing and leader. A small assortment of flies. Strike indicators for the wet flies. Dry fly floatant for the dry flies. Hemostat for tieing the flies to the line and releasing the fish. Fingernail clippers for t...
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over 1 year ago
Question What would the basic gear for fly fishing be?
If one were to get started fly fishing what gear would one need just to start with? Of course, there is all sorts of gear and better gear, but what would the minimum gear to start with be?
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over 1 year ago
Question Is the casting technique any different when using a dry and a wet fly at the same time?
It is possible to use a dry fly as a strike indicator for your wet fly while also catching the fish that would go for a surface bug at the same time. Is the casting technique any different as it seems like it would be easier to get the line tangled?
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over 1 year ago
Question Technique for fly fishing into the wind?
Sometimes when fly fishing in canyons the wind will start coming down the canyon and it makes it that much harder to cast. It doesn't take a whole lot of wind to completely stop one from further fishing. Are there any tricks or techniques when casting into the wind?
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: What is this metal plate at the top of Mount Hoffman?
That is half of an old summit registry box. That one is missing the top and might not be the exact style but the full ones look like this. Source You can see more pictures of them here and a history of the summit registers in the Sierra's here. It's obvious that its aluminum because it ...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: How to tie a dry fly above a wet fly when fly fishing?
It's actually quite simple. Tie the dry fly on the end like normal. Take the wet fly and tie it onto an appropriately sized length of tippet (between 13-24 inches) Tie the end of tippet with the dry fly to either the bend of the hook on the dry fly or to the eye of the dry fly (if you can get the l...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Why do hydration bladders top out at 3 liters?
Hydration bladders and dromedaries serve two slightly different purposes, Hydration bladders are for each individual to carry. Dromedaries are for carrying water for more than one person. A single individual probably won't need more than 4 liters and two people aren't going to share one hose. On...
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over 1 year ago
Question How to tie a dry fly above a wet fly when fly fishing?
Most fly fishing with wet flies is done with just single wet fly and a strike indicator but it's also possible to do it with a dry fly instead of a strike indicator (this lets you do both at the same time). Sometimes fish will try to eat the strike indicator, and this would let you catch them instea...
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over 1 year ago
Question How do you determine where to cast when fly fishing bigger, mostly featureless rivers?
Smaller streams are easy to tell where to cast when fly fishing given fish's tendency to hang out in pools or hole or undercut banks. It easy to decide where you need to cast and approximately where the fish are going to strike. However on bigger rivers, it's not anywhere nearly so obvious where to ...
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over 1 year ago
Question Is there an optimal strike indicator color for fly fishing reflective, tumbling streams?
Strike indicators are basically the fly fishing version of bobbers and they come in different colors white, yellow, orange, etc. When fishing streams that have a big of disturbance and the sun is reflecting just right it is hard to watch the indicator even with polarized sunglasses. Would there be ...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: How can I store milk for long periods of time?
Couple of ways to do this, Powdered milk, has a shelf life of over a year and just needs water added to it. Evaporated milk, milk with over 60% of the water removed before being canned. Sweetened condensed milk, basically the same as the above just with lots of sugar added. Powdered milk is the l...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Is belaying with a hip belay unsafe?
It not necessarily unsafe, it's just fallen out of use with better gear and techniques. It still has a couple of use cases and it's something I think people should know, but I would never use it for rock climbing unless I had no other choice. The use cases where it still makes sense is when belaying...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Do sharpies or markers damage soft rock climbing gear?
It's possible that it could damage the soft gear, Tests done by the UIAA Safety Commission and some rope manufacturers have shown that marking ropes with liquids such as those provided by felt-tipped pens can damage them; even with those markers, sold specifically for marking ropes. The test ...
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over 1 year ago
Question What to look for in a spotting scope?
Spotting scopes are used for all sorts of things in the outdoors, from watching climbers on big walls to observing wildlife. Usually, the reason for using one instead of a pair of binoculars is the higher magnification. What features should I look for in a good spotting scope?
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Garmin inReach vs. overcast sky
I have an inReach and have used it in all sorts of conditions and terrain. Overcast weather is not a problem but a reflective tarp or deep canyons can be. If a message fails to get through the device will flash red and that means you need a better position. Normally it&#x2019;s not a problem.
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over 1 year ago
Question What weather conditions would lead to lightning strikes before sunrise?
Twice now I have been summitting peaks in Rocky Mountain National Park while getting really early starts to avoid the afternoon thunderstorms. However in both cases I could still see lighting in the distance several hours before sunrise (think 3:30 to 6:00 am). What type of weather conditions would...
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over 1 year ago
Question How to touch up scratches on a black anodized aluminum flashlight?
One of my flashlights that has a black anodized aluminum housing has a couple of scratches on it, all of the way through the anodized coating. How can I cover up the scratches so that its completely black again?
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: How do people drown while wearing a life jacket?
Life jackets do not make one drownproof, just increase your odds significantly. Our data also show that over 80% of drowning victims were NOT wearing life jackets when found. We know from other data that most of those victims could have been saved had they been wearing a life jacket before th...
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over 1 year ago
Question How tall of a paddle is needed for standup paddle boarding?
In addition to choosing a correctly sized paddle board, one also needs a correctly sized paddle. How does one determine the correct size of paddle for stand up paddle boarding?
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Boots or trail runners with reference to blisters?
Blisters are more a function of improperly fitting/not broken in footwear than the specific type, although some kinds can be worse than others. Heavier and stiffer boots take longer to break in than light running shoes for example. I would get the type of footwear that works best for the terrain and...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Why are we moving in circles with a tandem kayak?
Going in circles while in a paddled craft such as a kayak/canoe/raft means that there is more force being applied on one side than the other (this is also how you turn the craft). If you notice that you are going to one side, paddle more on that side and less on the other until the craft straighten...
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over 1 year ago
Question What should I look for in a spinning 22lr target?
I am looking to get a spinning 22lr target, the fun thing about these is that if you hit them the target spins and then resets so it's very clear that you either hit or missed. There are all different types and kinds of these, what features should I look for?
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Impact of throwing away fruit waste on a peak > 3200 m above a glacier
The problem with food waste at that elevation is that there is very little soil to bury things and that decomposition happens much slower at those altitudes. Sometimes there are still marmots/pikas at that elevation who will eat left over apples and such, the problem with that is then they become de...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: What can I do to be more visible to other ship's radar when traveling in a sea kayak?
It looks like radar reflectors will not hurt but they aren't great either. The bigger and higher they are the better, which is easier to do on a sailboat than a sea kayak. According to one study, a homemade reflector worn on the paddler's hat provided the best signal reflections. The distance they c...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: What are known failure modes of the auto-braking mechanism of Grigris?
There are several scenarios but they all boil down to not using the brake hand but instead hoping the device will catch or improperly sized ropes. 1) with super-skinny ropes; 2) an extremely light climber; 3) routes with bulges or significant rope drag that reduce the forces of a fall...
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over 1 year ago
Question Why use string walking in archery to change the distance of your shot?
String walking is, Having a 3-under allows for string walking. What this is, is basically the ability to pull the string at a different position hence changing the distance of your shot. Source Why would one use string walking instead of just adjusting your aim?
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over 1 year ago
Question What kind of berries are these purple and reddish with crown looking tops?
There are some 15ft tall shrubs/trees that have these purple and reddish of berries. The trees seem to be either 15ft tall or 3ft and they are growing next to a trail. The tree wood is a greyish brown and smooth. Does anyone know what kind of berries these are and if they are edible?
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Is there an app: remind me when I get back here
I think what you are looking for is called a GPS/location alarm. The basic idea is that you set a point and the alarm goes off when you reach it. People use them on public transport to wake up before their stop. In this specific case you would probably want to make a note of the coordinates and the...
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over 1 year ago
Question How would a sea turtle end up on its back?
There is a video going round of two guys flipping a sea turtle that had ended up on its back so it could get back into the water. How would a sea turtle end up on its back in the first place (it sure doesn't seem that the turtle would do that on purpose)?
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: How do I use these lures from a basic fishing kit?
What you have is two jigs and a spinner (on the right). The basic idea is that you cast them out and then reel them back in and the fish think they are small fish swimming by and try and eat them. You don't want to pull them in a straight line, rather pull in a more random fashion with small jerks a...
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over 1 year ago
Question What features should I look for in a trail camera?
Trail cameras are motioned achieved cameras that are used to capture pictures of wild animals in the outdoors. The idea is that you can set it up in a place where animals are like to be such as a trail and the camera will take the pictures as they pass. What features in a trail camera should I look ...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Is the Battery Life of the Garmin InReach Mini enough for a 2 week trip?
According to Garmin, with a 30-minute tracking interval and extended tracking mode, the battery should last for 20 days. Turn the screen brightness down and turn it off every single night when you are in camp to further extend the battery life. On the other hand, the inReach mini battery is 1,250 mA...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: How to trap and relocate raccoons?
You might try different bait, something that's more smelly like wet cat food or supposed to work better like marshmallows. If you can at the same time limit the other things they might want to eat, the better off you are. Try not to touch the trap with your bare hands, usually, when trapping you don...
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over 1 year ago
Question How much time/distance on average does it take take to break in hiking boots?
If you are buying new hiking boots before a trip there is a break in period before the boots get comfortable and you don't want to go on a long backpacking trip with brand new boots. Time will depend on the person and how much time they can spare for breaking in and distance can depend on the terrain...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Tradeoffs between different stopper knots
What you are looking for is a knot that, Is easy to tie and check that you did it properly. Big enough it won't go through the belay device. Won't come undone. That gives you a number of options which depending on the person you may remember one knot more than the next. Double overhand (classic...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Tioga Pass (Yosemite) Day Use Opening Timeline
If you look at the historical data the latest in the year that's its opened is July 1st, and in 2017 which was a very similar year for amount of snow it opened June 29th. That year the road was left completely closed after it had been plowed to let things dry out first, it sounds like this year they ...
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over 1 year ago
Question What kind of spider is this half dollar sized brown one with a darker brown body and a lighter brown strip down its back?
I found this spider yesterday running across a sidewalk next to a canal, it was bigger than a quarter and I think it was carrying an egg sack. Does anybody know what kind of spider this is?
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: What should I do when I find a dying dog?
If I had a 22lr and if it was legal, I would consider putting it out of its misery with that, otherwise you did the correct thing. When there is no practical way to save it, and you only risk injury to yourself then the correct thing is to keep yourself safe and stay beyond where it could hurt you ...
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over 1 year ago
Question Is there any evidence that the small canisters (10 liters) of 95% oxygen actually help with altitude sickness?
In Colorado outdoor stores its not uncommon to see these small canisters of 95% percent oxygen that's sold to help people cope with high altitude. Is there any evidence that these actually help with altitude sickness? I mean plenty of places still sell the Sawyer Venom extractor kits and there is no...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: GSI and similar plastic camping cookware: safe to use over fires?
The reason that pan is not reccomended for campfire cooking is because it has a teflon non-stick coating which won't hand the heat. Over time exposure to high heat will deteriorate the surface. Also, depending on the type of nonstick coating on your pan, cooking over high heat can lead to the rel...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Is leather superseded as footwear material?
If you are thinking of the older styles of hiking boots where they were almost completely leather, yes that style has gone out of fashion with newer materials that are lighter and made out of synthetic materials such as nylon and have Gortex linings. On the other hand, there are plenty of modern boo...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: When, and how, is it safe to relocate a burrow of chipmunks without harming the young?
It looks like they leave the burrow fairly quickly after you see them out and about so that shouldn't be a problem. Eastern chipmunks mate in early spring and again in early summer, producing litters of four or five young twice each year.[11] Western chipmunks breed only once a year. The young em...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Why aren't (poly-)cotton tents more popular?
I think your question spells out pretty well why people prefer other materials (cost,weight) and they really aren't used for backpacking where weight matters. The times I have ever seen them in use it was an outfitters camp where the tents are setup for an extended period of time and they had had mu...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Require advice on power conservation for backpacking trip
It depends on how many pictures you want to take and how much weight you want to carry. In your case it looks like two camera batteries is enough for 1600 pictures, that may or may not be enough for your purposes. As far as your phone goes keeping it only in airplane mode, using the the low power se...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Hot coffee brewing solutions for deep woods camping
I just ran the experiment of making hot coffee with a cotton coffee sock instead of doing my usual cold brew and it works fine. It's almost the same as cowboy coffee but has the advantage of seperating the grounds from the coffee. Place the coffee sock with grounds inside in water that was boiling...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: What's an easy way to fasten/unfasten to bind two horizontal poles?
If speed is the goal here, then just use a nylon belt with a buckle. To shorten just cut one end and then seal it with a lighter. Source Easy on and off and if you need more security wrap it twice before buckling.
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Birds not eating Nyjer (thistle seed)?
It looks like birds won't eat it once the seed dries out and not all birds like it so I would make sure that you have the right types of birds in your area. Sometimes the birds would also rather eat wild seeds instead of from feeders. Also, it's not actually thistle seed, it's just called that for m...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Why is oilcloth made with linseed oil?
Linseed oil is used because it's a drying oil, A drying oil is an oil that hardens to a tough, solid film after a period of exposure to air. The oil hardens through a chemical reaction in which the components crosslink (and hence, polymerize) by the action of oxygen (not through the evaporation o...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: What makes for good locations to go magnet fishing?
The general idea is that you are looking for places with high human traffic right next to the water. Places such as, Docks Fishing Piers Footbridges Paths next to a canal Boat ramps Old quarries The depth of the water also matters, if its a seasonal canal or a in parts of the lake that are expose...
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over 1 year ago
Question What makes for good locations to go magnet fishing?
Magnet fishing is when you take go fishing with a magnet trying to find metal objects that people have lost into bodies of water such as cellphones, knives, bikes, etc. What would make a location good for this?
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over 1 year ago
Question What kind of toad is this 2.5 inch (6.5cm) one yellow with brown spots and a white back stripe?
I just found this toad on a sidewalk near a lake the elevation was probably somewhere around 4800 ft (1500m). Does anybody know what kind it is?
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: What is the standard barrel length used for calculating the velocity of ammunition?
The standards are set by SAAMI (Sporting Arms and Manufacturers Institute) and it depends on the type of firearm. Rimfire rifles 24 inches (page 60) Centerfire rifles 24 inches with 5 exceptions (page 231), 7.62x39 &#x2013; 20.00 inches (508.0mm) 30 Carbine &#x2013; 20.00 inches (508.0mm)...
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over 1 year ago
Question What is the standard barrel length used for calculating the velocity of ammunition?
If you buy a box of ammunition, it usually says the muzzle velocity on the box in addition to the bullet weight (or you can find the information online). Given that bullet velocity depends on the length of the barrel, with longer barrels usually having higher velocities, and one's barrel may be long...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: How to make sure that your arrows are flying straight?
The solution is called paper tuning, what you do is shoot your arrow completely through a sheet of paper and examine the hole left behind. The easy way to do this is to tack a sheet of paper to a large empty picture frame and stand it up about 1.5 arrow lengths from the target. This is what it shoul...
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over 1 year ago
Question How to make sure that your arrows are flying straight?
Sometimes, if your knock is too high or too low or your rest is not perfectly in line with the string, your arrows will fly at a slight angle to the direction of travel instead of perfectly straight. How can you test to make sure your arrows are flying straight?
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: What is the v-notch on top of the &#x201C;Clickup&#x201D; climbing belay device for?
According to the diagram in the instruction manual, that is called a braking notch and the only mention is If the rope is inserted incorrectly into the Click Up i.e. not following the indications marked on the device (Fig. 3.5) or the Click Up is inserted upside down onto the harness&#x2019;s ...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Is there an easy way to remember if you add magnetic declination to magnetic bearings or true bearings?
Remember, your compass points to magnetic north while to finding True North requires calculation. This means that the declination needs to be added to/subtracted from the magnetic bearing i.e. what your compass is showing. As a sanity check, For locations east of the agonic line (zero decl...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: How do I know when it's time to replace my climbing shoes?
Generally speaking, newer shoes are going to be better and more effective and yet as you well know that costs money. So what it really comes down is a cost/benefit analysis that's going to be up to the individual. If it gets to a point where you are slipping and the shoes are falling apart at the se...
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over 1 year ago
Question How much vegetation is represented by the green on USGS 7.5 minute topo maps?
On official USGS topo maps, vegetation is represented by green, and non vegetation by white as you can see below. How much vegetation does an area need to be colored green? Are short bushes enough or does it require trees?
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over 1 year ago
Question When would docks on Chatfield Reservoir be least busy with boaters putting in and taking out?
I have a magnet and line setup to go magnet fishing and I would like to make some sweeps around one the docks Chatfield Reservoir on where it's likely that people have dropped gear/cellphones into the water, but so far there have always been people there putting their boat in and out and I don't wan...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Ultra-light camping setup for solo-backping in the Uintas
The tent is probably not strictly necessary, a tarp or just the fast setup should probably work fine unless it seriously rains or you are above treeline while it rains or it gets really windy. At the point in the year, the number of ticks/mosquitos should be greatly reduced. Not taking the whole ten...
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over 1 year ago
Question What's is the Leave No Trace way to dispose of loose tea leaves?
It's possible to buy tea that is loose leaf instead on in the tea bags and use it while in the outdoors such as cold brewing in a Nalgene. Coffee grounds need to be packed out but what about tea leaves (which are biodegradable). What is the Leave No Trace way to dispose of the used tea leaves?
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over 1 year ago
Question Has an excise tax on rock climbing/backpacking/hiking gear to support conservation ever been proposed in the US?
In the United States, there are a couple of excise taxes on outdoor gear that goes towards conservation, Pittman&#x2013;Robertson Act which taxes firearms, ammunition and archery equipment and the Dingell&#x2013;Johnson Act which is the same idea but for fishing. The simple idea is that hunters and ...
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over 1 year ago
Question What is the Leave No Trace way to dispose of coffee grounds?
If one makes coffee in the backcountry, there will be used grounds. Coffee grounds are biodegradable, but should one instead pack them out completely? What is the Leave No Trace way to deal with used coffee grounds in the backcountry?
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over 1 year ago
Question How do they tell the sex of Peregrine Falcon chicks?
Related to this question where the difference in size might possibly be due to one of the 3 peregrine falcon chicks being male, how do they tell whether a peregrine chick is male or female? Eventually, it's possible due to size difference but at this stage how do they tell?
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over 1 year ago
Question What kind of bird is this greyish small chicken sized one I found in the Uintas?
On my hike through the Uinta mountains, I came across this greyish bird and her 3-4 chicks. The timelapse I took of the birds can be seen here. It looks like some sort of grouse, does anybody know what kind of bird this is?
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: When to clean out old bird boxes?
It looks like the answer is to clean them out at least once a year, once the breeding season is over and before winter, which would be around the end of August in the northern hemisphere (or the end of February in the southern hemisphere). If a species has multiple broods, they can be cleaned out be...
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over 1 year ago
Answer A: Is it legal to launch a kayak from a public beach in Chicago?
It looks like it will depend on the beach, some beaches have restrictions on where you can launch, some don't and some do not allow kayaks or paddles sports. It would probably be easiest to ask the park department which beaches allow kayaks or you could go through the list and see if a particular be...
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almost 2 years ago
Question What would the advantage of a piercable butane canister be?
All of the butane gas cartridges I have seen have a screwable top for attaching your stove, however, there are apparently also pierceable cartridges without a screwable top. Source What would the advantage of this type of canister be or is this style just not seen in the U.S? (I went looking yest...
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almost 2 years ago
Question How much margin due to charging inefficiency should I add when calculating the size of batteries needed for a trip?
In order to charge my electrical equipment while backpacking (GPS, camera for timelapses, phone, etc) I bring along a large battery. To calculate the size of the battery you can figure out how many recharges each device will need and how big their batteries are. However, charging one battery with an...
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almost 2 years ago
Question What is the leave no trace thing to do when parallel trails start to form?
Sometimes in areas with sandy/muddy ground, multiple parallel trails will start to form. What is the least impactful way to walk a trail like this? Do you stay on whichever trail shows the most recent travel of the deepest or another option?
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almost 2 years ago
Question Why are cottontail rabbits smelling through gravel piles?
In one of the gravel parking lots I pass on my way to work there are a number of cotton tail rabbits that hang out there. At one end of parking lot there is piled up gravel from all of the plowing that happened over the winter. A couple of times when I have passed by there were rabbits that looked ...
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almost 2 years ago
Question How do they capture Rocky Mountain Goats in order to relocate them?
In Grand Teton National Park they have Rocky Mountain Goats and Bighorn Sheep and because they are worried that the goats will spread diseases to the sheep, they want to mountain goats gone from the Teton Range. How do they capture the goats alive so they can relocate them somewhere else?
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almost 2 years ago
Question Where to find Rocky Mountain Goats?
All of the times I have seen Rocky Mountain goats it has been by accident, you come around the corner of the trail in the mountains and there they are. If one were to go deliberately looking for them to take a picture for example, where would one look and are there any signs of their presence in an ...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: How to cut a climbing rope?
The easiest way to do this is to use an electric rope cutter. Source To use this you wait till the blade is hot then stretch the rope tight with your hands giving yourself a couple of inches on either side of where you want to cut and bring it down across the blade. The blade will go through the ...
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almost 2 years ago
Question How to cut a climbing rope?
Sometimes it is necessary to cut a climbing rope, either to shorten it or to trim worn ends. If were one to cut a climbing rope, how would one do so?
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almost 2 years ago
Question How to melt snow without fire or body heat?
I did a backpacking trip once where I was above treeline, there was no running water and I was low on fuel for my stove. While some of the snow was melting it was draining into the ground so fast there was no liquid water. What I ended up doing for drinking water was throwing snow on top of a tarp a...
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almost 2 years ago
Question What is the use case for non-breathable waterproof pants?
For rain pants, there are both breathable pants that let sweat out and non-breathable ones that do not. The problem with the non-breathable pants is that your sweat can build up inside and then you will get wet underneath the pants anyways. As non-breathable pants are still sold, what is the case wh...
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almost 2 years ago
Question Are there any tips to help hummingbirds find a new feeder?
Once a hummingbird feeder is set up and the hummingbirds know about it they will come back over and over again on a regular basis. They even seem to remember after the winter and will come to check to see if the feeders are out yet. If one is setting up a hummingbird feeder in a new area that hasn't...
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almost 2 years ago
Question What is this dime sized black bug with white on the segments near Loveland Colorodao?
On my walk around town today I found this small black bug, (keychain carabiner for scale). Closeup It has two antenna and it seems that there is white on the edge of the segments. Does anyone know what kind of bug this is?
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Can dirty bird feeders make birds sick?
Dirty bird feeders are known for causing problems for birds, CPW said the disease has not yet been confirmed in Colorado, but the agency wants to warn people that house finch eye disease, along with several others are commonly spread at dirty bird feeders and baths. The other diseases include sal...
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almost 2 years ago
Question Why would one type of 22lr ammo be louder than another?
I was doing some target 22 target practice and had three different brands of ammo, supersonic Thunderbolt 35 grain, Aguila 40 grain subsonic and Aguila 60 grain subsonic. The Thunderbolt was the loudest due to the sonic boom, but the 40 grain was noticeably quieter. The exact same setup of rifle and...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Using a Snow jacket for non snow conditions?
It would probably work and some of it will just depend on your preferences. Possible issues may include, Too much insulation causing you to overheat and sweat and become uncomfortable, doubly so if the jacket is not breathable. Bulkier and heavier than it needs to be. Several layers instead of one ...
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almost 2 years ago
Question Where to find pronghorn sheds?
Each year pronghorn shed the outer covering of their horns, and while they don't last as long as deer sheds you can still find them. All of the ones I have found have been by accident, if one was to deliberately go looking for them, where would be good places to look?
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almost 2 years ago
Question Why would a Rocky Mountain Goat be making scrapes in the ground?
While hiking in the Ruby Mountains of Nevada, I came around the corner and saw several mountain goats who had made several fairly large scrapes (3-4 ft long and a couple feet wide) in the ground. Why would the mountain goats have done this?
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: How should regular Appalachian Trail hikers interpret this weekend's attack?
Realistically this is something to be aware of, horrible assaults and murders have happened before on the trail. Beyond that, for me at least this isn't a reason not to hike, it's a reason to be aware and prepared. Tons of people die in car accidents but people are still going to drive to work. The...
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almost 2 years ago
Question How stiff of a sole should I look for in hiking boots?
There is a spectrum of sole stiffness in boots, from full shank on mountaineering boots to the easily bendable ones on really cheap boots. The way to test is to push in on the shoe lengthwise and see how easily the sole bends. As I am looking for a new pair of hiking boots, how stiff of a sole shou...
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almost 2 years ago
Question What is this brown catipillar with white stripes and two black spots near the head in Loveland, Colorado?
I was riding my bike today and I saw a number of these brown caterpillars with white strips and black spots near the head crossing the sidewalk. (Penny for scale) Does anyone know what kind of caterpillar this is?
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Will a coyote attack my dog on a leash while I'm on a hiking trail?
Has this happened sure, Traps have been set out after an elderly woman was walking her small, mixed-breed dog on a leash around 10 a.m. on Saturday on Avenida Majorca and a coyote began attacking the dog, Falk said. Falk said the woman tried to wrestle the dog away and was bitten in the scuf...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Is there any evidence that suction devices are helpful for snake bites?
There are two studies I could find on this, Conclusion The Sawyer Extractor pump removed bloody fluid from our simulated snakebite wounds but removed virtually no mock venom, which suggests that suction is unlikely to be an effective treatment for reducing the total body venom burden after ...
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almost 2 years ago
Question Is there any evidence that suction devices are helpful for snake bites?
Back in the old days, it was recommended that for a snake bite you cut an X and suck the venom out. That is no longer recommended, however, they still sell suction devices such as the Sawyer Extractor that you are supposed to place over the bit and then suck the venom out. (There is at least one answ...
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almost 2 years ago
Question What is this abandoned equipment and shed on skids near Mono Lake CA?
I found this abandoned building with what looked like some sort of radio gear while hiking near Mono Lake California. The shed on skids Close up of inside Does anyone know what this was originally used for?
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almost 2 years ago
Question Are perches on humming bird feeders bad for the humming birds?
Apparently, there is a theory that says Hummingbirds can become hypothermic if they sit on a feeder perch and drink several cropfuls of cold sugar water early in the morning. The birds fall to the ground unresponsive if they become extremely hypothermic. If they are not found before they die and...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Are sleeping system R-ratings additive?
Yes, they should be additive in this situation and its pretty commonly done. As long as the materials involved are dense solids in direct mutual contact,[9] R-values are additive; for example, the total R-value of an barrier composed of several layers of material is the sum of the R-values of the...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Can a gun spontaneously fire?
No, a gun will not spontaneously discharge It's an object that won't do anything without external input. A better term for this is negligent discharge because the human was negligent and messed up and cause the gun to go off. There are all sorts of ways of causing a negligent discharge, Assuming t...
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almost 2 years ago
Question Are there statistics on how often CPR on someone who has been struck by lighting works?
In all of my Wilderness First Responder classes and books, they have said that people who have been struck by lightning and need CPR have the best chance of it working (in general save rates with CPR are extremely low). Are there any official statistics on the number of people who got struck by ligh...
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almost 2 years ago
Question What is this square plastic thing with small black flat glass marbles in the Uintas?
On top of one of the peaks in the Uinta mountain range I found this plastic thing with small black flat glass marbles in it. It was several feet long and there were small holes underneath of the flat marbles. The plastic holder had holes below and it had a temperature reader attached. What e...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Name of this Forked Fin Fish with Teeth Caught in Miami River, Florida, USA
That's an Inshore Lizardfish. The coloring and range are right and so is the description of the head and the teeth. It looks like they are edible but not deliberately caught by most people.
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almost 2 years ago
Question What would be the advantage of the 3 fingers under release?
In the Instinctive Bow Division of World Archery, you can either release in the Mediterranean style with one finger above the knock and two fingers below, or you can shoot 3 under, where all three fingers are under the knock. I have only ever seen people use the Mediterranean style, what would the a...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Am I allowed to shoot 3 under in World Archery's Instinctive Bow Division?
According to the rulebook, you can either shoot with one finger above or all below but not both. The bow must be shot using the "Mediterranean" loose (one finger above the arrow nock) or fingers directly below the arrow nock (index finger no more than 2 mm below nock), with one fixed anchor point...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: What aquatic animal laid these eggs?
Those look like Wood Frog eggs. You would expect to find Wood Frogs breeding in ponds, vernal pools, and marsh edges in or near forested habitat at a wide range of elevations as soon as the snow melts and the ground thaws. A typical egg mass can have between 500 and 2000 eggs. The embryos start o...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: What to do with chalk when deepwater soloing?
When you fall into the water with a regular chalk bag, it will get too wet to be used. Some solutions to this include, Using liquid chalk, it supposed to stick for longer and you can spread extra on your forearms/legs to rechalk up. Multiple chalkbags/extra chalk so that while one bag dries out you...
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almost 2 years ago
Question How to sharpen the line cutter/gut hook on a knife?
Some knives have gut hooks, and some have line cutters, Source It basically the same notch just optimized for different purposes. How exactly would one sharpen the gut hook/line cutter? Its not as easy as sharpening the blade.
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: What is this sharp, curved notch on my knife for?
It's a line cutter, the idea is that you use it to cut lines, string etc. The reason that it's curved is to keep the line from slipping off the blade, using the rest of the blade would be quite difficult to do. See here for more examples. You wouldn't want to use it for skinning.
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Sighting in a Rifle without firing a shot
A bore sight will get you close, but it's not perfect and you will want to shoot real bullets to test your aim afterwards. If you bore sight it at 25 yards it should be on paper at 100 yards and you can make small adjustments from there. As for calculating how much it will drop over distance/ be pus...
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almost 2 years ago
Question What type of lizard is this grey and orange one I found near the Grand Canyon?
While hiking to see the Grand Canyon on the North side, I found this grey and orange lizard running through some downed brush and logs (center of picture). Would anyone know what type of lizard this is?
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Risk of getting Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in the United States?
According to the CDC, the risk is low, and no cases in humans have been reported. The lack of evidence of a link between CWD transmission and unusual cases of CJD, despite several epidemiologic investigations, and the absence of an increase in CJD incidence in Colorado and Wyoming suggest that th...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: RIMO III (elevation: 7,233 m, coordinates, 35&#xB0;22&#x2032;31&#x2033;N 77&#xB0;21&#x2032;42&#x2033;E): first ascent date?
According to the Himalayan Journal, it was July 14th, 1985. Rimo III (7233 m -23,730 ft) Wilkinson and Fotheringham 14 July NE ridge From east via South Rimo glacier. EXPLORING 'THAT VALLEY'-TERONG by HARISH KAPADIA
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: How to follow bearings while running?
The steps are rather simple for following a bearing without always looking at your compass, Pick a distant recognizable point (stump, rocks, tree) on your bearing. Travel to that point (not necessarily in a straight line). Pull out your compass and repeat. The reason for picking out the distant p...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Yosemite Fire Rings - What to Expect?
They will be a ring of rocks around an area with ashes that has clearly been used for fires before. You can see examples of illegal ones here. Legal ones would look the same, just be already existing and within the location requirements. In order to minimize the impact to park ecosystems and t...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Can you identify this lizard-like creature I observed in the UK?
That's not a lizard that's a smooth newt. Source None of the lizards in the UK look anything like that, and the tail and lines are what I am basing my identification off of. Also see Attracting British Amphibians to your Water Garden and Getting to know your newts.
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almost 2 years ago
Question How to test the sharpness of a knife?
In order for knives to be useful, they need to be sharp. If I am sharpening one myself, how do I know when I am done? What would be a simple easy test of whether a knife is sharp enough?
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almost 2 years ago
Question What conditions would lead to lake ice being extremely clear?
There is a video where a couple of people are walking on extremely clear lake ice. Usually, lake ice is far less clear, what conditions on this lake would lead to the unusual clarity?
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Knife as defense against stray dogs
It can be used for sure, but there are better options. A knife would require you to be very close to the dog, whilst a stick or pepper spray would provide much greater distance between you and the threat. Pepper spray is used by the US Postal Service, and they have lots of experience with dog bites....
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Why use a 20 MOA rail on top of a rifle?
For long range shooting, you have to aim above the target in order to hit it. For example, a 308 will have dropped 340 inches at 1,000 yards. Source Instead of aiming above, it is possible to dial a scope in so that you can hold the crosshairs directly on the target. However, scopes have a limite...
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almost 2 years ago
Question Why use a 20 MOA rail on top of a rifle?
Some hunting rifles come with a 20 MOA rail on top for mounting the scope or you can purchase the rails separately. What is the point of a 20 MOA rail?
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almost 2 years ago
Question How are mountain lion populations estimated?
Knowing how many mountain lions are in an area is important for conservation, as it would be important to know if the population was in decline or to set the number that can be taken by hunters in a given season. How is the number of mountain lions in a given area estimated?
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: What does it take to become a wilderness skills guide as a business?
In my experience, it comes down to 4 things. Wilderness First Responder Certification: The first course is 80 hours and then you need to recertify after 2 years. There are other certifications such as a Wilderness EMT but this is pretty much the standard. Organization specific instructor course: Wh...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Wet vs dry glacier
The difference is in how the glacier moves, Dry glaciers: In colder climates, basal melting is minimal or absent, and flow is entirely through ductile flow. Wet glaciers: In warmer climates, basal slip can predominate. Source In Antarctica, thermal regimes pass through the end membe...
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almost 2 years ago
Question Why would cottontail rabbits be hanging out in a gravel parking lot?
There is a gravel parking lot with trees on either side that I pass on my way to work and there are always a couple of cottontail rabbits hanging out under and next to the cars parked there. Why are they in a gravel parking lot though? There is no grass or water and one would think they would rather...
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: Is there a way to find out the age of climbing ropes?
The only way I know of would to be to cut a small section off of one of the ends and then dissect it. Inside of the sheath next to the core strands should be a tracer thread and identification tape, During the braiding process, an identification tape and tracer thread indicating the year of ma...
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almost 2 years ago
Question Are there any modern advantages of a fire piston?
A fire piston is a very old way of starting fires, predating friction matches and works on the same principle as a diesel engine. Basically, you use it to light a piece of tinder and then start the fire with that. Source It's possible to buy modern ones pretty cheaply, would a fire piston have ...
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almost 2 years ago
Question What is a cartridge&#x2019;s point-blank-range?
Related to the idea of a flatter shooting cartridge, and the reason why a flatter cartridge makes it easier to hit the animal within the vital area, is the concept of point-blank-range. What is point-blank-range when hunting with firearms and why would it matter?
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almost 2 years ago
Answer A: What does it mean for a caliber to be flat shooting?
Bullets follow a parabolic arc as seen below, Image Source As you can see the yellow line is a bullet fired from a longer barrel which results in a higher velocity and thus less drop over distance. In this case the yellow line is a flatter shooting rifle. Cartridges that are regarded as flatter ...
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about 2 years ago
Question What does it mean for a caliber to be flat shooting?
Certain calibers such as the 300 Winchester Magnum are often called flat shooting. What does that mean and why would a hunter care that the caliber is flat shooting when selecting a rifle to go hunting with?
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Can or should you season titanium cookware?
Seasoning is done for two reasons, To prevent rust/corrosion. To prevent sticking. While titanium can rust, in the process it creates a layer of titanium oxide which creates a protective layer that protects the inside from further corrosion and the non-sticking versions have a coating but are not...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Garmin Fenix 3 - Temperature spikes result in abnormal elevation changes
The thing is that altimeters are affected by the air temperature because hot air will cause the pressure to rise and cold air to cause the pressure to drop. Warm air causes air pressure to rise. When air molecules collide, they exert force on each other. When gas molecules are heated, the molecul...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Planning where to stop and camp in advance
It's going to depend on you, the terrain and how long it takes to set up camp. If you can set up in the dark and don't need a lot of perfectly flat terrain then you can definitely keep walking until you get tired and then set up. There have been plenty of times where I hiked into the night and then...
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about 2 years ago
Question Has Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) suddenly gotten worse in the United States?
Chronic wasting disease is a fatal disease that affects members of the deer family. It has always been something to watch out for when hunting because you don't want to eat meat from animals that have it and will cause higher mortality in herds. There have been a bunch of news articles on it recentl...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Can anyone identify this small black swimming creature?
That's a mottled sea hare. Image source Aplysia fasciata, common name the "mottled sea hare", or the "sooty sea hare", is an Atlantic species of sea hare or sea slug, a marine opisthobranch gastropod mollusk in the family Aplysiidae. ... Aplysia fasciata can grow to sizes up to 40 cm...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Was the young cougar who attacked a runner recently in Colorado likely to have been old enough to live independently of its mother?
It probably was, as 50 lbs is way beyond the size at which they are weaned. However, mountain lion cubs will stay with the mom for up to 18 months. Female cougars probably begin leading their kittens to kills as early as 7 to 8 weeks. The mother also carries meat to her young from kills until wea...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Is 30-06 too high caliber for hunting wild boar?
It's not that it would be too big of a cartridge, it's just that it's an old cartridge (introduced in 1906) that's no longer what the Cool Kids&#8482; use. 308, for example, is lighter, cheaper, more accurate and while 308 will drop more that really doesn't matter except for really long range shots ...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Outfitter does "game prep but not processing"
It means that they will clean and gut/quarter but not turn it into jerky/steak/hamburger for you. In other words they will help you get it out of the field and then it&#x2019;s up to you to process it from there. You would need to process it yourself or find a butcher shop that will finish it.
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: no weapons Fighting large cat with bare hands
It sound like in this case, they were able to strange it. 80 lbs is not very big for a mountain lion, that would either be a juvenile or a smaller female mountain lion. The vulnerable places would be throat or eyeballs, its not like a bear where you can play dead, you have to fight back. As far as ...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: How to shorten alpine slings into an alpine quickdraw?
The simple way is to pass one of the carabiners through the other, then clip that carabiner to the slings on the other side. Finally, you pull both carabiners tight to dress the whole thing. To undo , you unclip any two of the strands from one carabiner and pull. This can be useful because y...
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about 2 years ago
Question How to shorten alpine slings into an alpine quickdraw?
Alpine slings are usually 60cm long and while they can be slung over one shoulder, it's much easier to carry them on your harness at 1/3 of the size in an alpine quickdraw. How would one shorten them up into an alpine quickdraw?
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: What needs to be clipped to the climbing harness, and how to carry all additional gear?
Anything that needs to be accessed quickly needs to go on your harness, this would include, Belay devices. Personal clip in gear. A couple of slings and carabiners Beyond that, you can sling your alpine draws over one shoulder, along with doubled up cordelettes, and if you use a gear sling, then...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: What does the Garmin GPSMAP 66 "SOS beacon" function do?
Based on the pictures and how it is talked about, it's probably just a strobe mode for the flashlight. The built-in LED flashlight/SOS Beacon is a great backup if needed in an emergency for added piece of mind when you&#x2019;re away from civilization. Source
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Why is traditional marine advice to stay still, rather than swim vigorously, if fallen in cold water?
Because swimming takes energy that your body could be using for heat and instead uses it for movement. The more energy you use in cold water, the more your body cools off. If you cannot climb out of the water, conserve body heat by remaining as still as possible and reducing the amount of your bo...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: How do I keep my group together?
The simple solution is to put the slowest person in the front of the group. This does two things. As long as no one passes, the group will naturally stick together. It encourages the slowest person to speed up, as being in front causes pressure to go faster. At the same time, a little spreading o...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: How real is the danger of suffocation in an Igloo?
It's a real danger, especially as the night goes on. Snow has plenty of air in it, and is somewhat breathable, but the moisture from your breath and the heat you generate is going to starting melting the snow and then freezing, so that there is an ice shell on the walls and ceiling. This is especiall...
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about 2 years ago
Question What is a glass artificial horizon?
On Amundsen's polar expedition they had, Of instruments and apparatus for the sledge journeys we carried two sextants, three artificial horizons, of which two were glass horizons with dark glasses, and one a mercury horizon, and four spirit compasses, made in Christiania. The South Pole An Acco...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: How do you know you have reached North or South Pole without GPS?
Amundsen's team used a meter on their sledges to get close (dead reckoning) and then sextants to confirm the position. Using Amundsen's diary, Roland Huntford (in The Amundsen Photographs) describes the photo as "Shooting the sun at the South Geographical Pole. Amundsen (left) is holding a sex...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: What is the difference between back country camping and front country camping?
Front country is when you go camping in an established campground that is usually reached by car. While backcountry camping is when you go camping in the backcountry getting to the non established campground by foot or horseback carrying your stuff with you. So this would be an example of a front co...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: What is the advantage of a fluted barrel on a hunting rifle?
A fluted barrel has two advantages, The flutes make the barrel lighter and thus easier to carry for long periods while hunting. More surface area means that the barrel cools down faster. As barrels heat up they lose their accuracy to a degree. Normally while hunting this isn't a big deal, but when ...
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about 2 years ago
Question What is the advantage of a fluted barrel on a hunting rifle?
As I look for a new hunting rifle, I see that some have fluted barrels, such as the Mossberg Patriot for example and some do not. What would the advantage of a fluted barrel be?
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: What is the best method for protecting my bees from pesticides?
It looks like there isn't much you can do because most of it depends on the farmers. With that said, The farther colonies are away from fields or orchards that are treated with pesticides, the better chance the bees have against pesticide poisoning. Establish apiaries at least 4 miles from c...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: What are the differences between a lighthouse and a light station in terms of the specific purpose?
A lighthouse is one of the buildings in a light station and has the actual signaling light while light station refers to all of the buildings. A light station comprises the lighthouse tower and all outbuildings, such as the keeper's living quarters, fuel house, boathouse, and fog-signaling buildi...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: How did O&#x2019;Brady charge his electronic gear while hiking across Antarctica?
He did it with solar panels, Sunlight, which shines 24 hours a day in the summer, O'Brady says, "is weird and disorienting but I actually kinda like it," since it allows him to charge his solar panels. US man finishes solo race across Antarctica To charge electronics, like the satellite pho...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: How do simple compass needles remain level instead of see-sawing with magnetic dip? Are they flat even near the poles?
The short answer is that the manufacturers know about this problem and have taken steps to correct the problem caused by the variance in the dips as you move up and down the earth. It can be done in one of two ways, either balancing a compass for a specific zone, which will limit the compass's usefu...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Using hiking boots for amateur rock-climbing
That type of boot is pretty standard for hiking and mountaineering and they work fine for climbing up to a point. I have done plenty of 3rd class ascents in boots like that. For going up talus fields or piles of large boulders they work great, as soon as you need to smear or hold onto very small led...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Why is the "alpine style" of climbing not as popular in the Himalayas?
TLDR: Because its much harder that way and the extra altitude of the Himalayas makes it that much more difficult. Alpine style refers to mountaineering in a self-sufficient manner, thereby carrying all of one's food, shelter, equipment, etc. as one climbs, as opposed to expedition style (or siege...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: What counts as climbing a mountain?
Most of the time it just means that you got to the top under your own power from the standard trailhead and if you want to be more specific, you give the route. Plenty of mountains will have different routes to the top of varying difficulty and length and other than the ones with roads to the top, i...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: What is an efficient and effective way to test an emergency day-hike kit?
There are two ways to test gear like this, Do it in a situation where it won't matter. Go without a sleeping bag for a night with it still in your backpack. Use a space tarp instead of your real one. Leave the GPS in your pack and navigate just by eye. Go fishing with dental floss etc. Deliberate...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Do chipmunks hibernate in woodpiles, and, if so, how do I avoid disturbing them when taking wood from the pile?
If animals like chipmunks or packrats nest in woodpiles, it's much more typical for them to be down low, closer to the ground. It would also depend on how it is stacked, if its bigger logs with bigger holes between the logs, then they are less likely to be there. Just taking off the top should be f...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Is burning cow pies (dried cow manure) safe?
It is apparently not safe, among the poor today who have to use it as they have no alternatives, it leads to all sorts of health problems. It is also a worse polutant than burning wood. On the reverse side of the environmental equation, raw biomass is known to emit a number of particulates as we...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Why is doubling up with plugs and muffs when shooting not more effective?
As in the article linked by @topshot, it is because of two factors, Sound is being conducted by your bones around the hearing the protection. They don't act as two separate devices. The principal reason is the bone-conduction (BC) limits to attenuation, which are also illustrated in Figure 1. ...
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about 2 years ago
Question Why is doubling up with plugs and muffs when shooting not more effective?
I keep looking for better ways of protecting my hearing when shooting, and it looks like wearing both plugs and muffs is recommended for indoor shooting (centerfire gunshots range from 160-170 decibels). However, if you look at the OSHA recommendations, one will notice that they say that doing so on...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Should I travel through freezing areas with hot or cold water in my RV tank?
This seems like a contradiction, if you are worried about freezing, then it would be better not to have any water in the tank/pipes where it could freeze and cause problems, and if not then it really doesn't matter whether or not it was hot or cold to start with. Also, as long as the journey is, it ...
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about 2 years ago
Question How to isolate a strong magnet from things it could damage in a small backpack?
I have a pretty strong magnet for magnet fishing. The problem that I am running into when taking it places is that I need a way to isolate it from my wallet/phone/compass inside my backpack as otherwise they could be damaged by the magnetic field. My current solution is to roll it up inside several ...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: How do breathable fabrics like Gore-tex and DWR (Durable Water Repellent) work?
In the absence of the DWR, it would still be waterproof, but not breathable. The DWR coating is to keep the rain off of the layer of Gore-tex but does not provide the waterproofing. Once the DWR coating wears off, the Gore-tex is no longer able to work and then the person's sweat starts building up ...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: Given limited space and weight what should I carry to get a fire going with damp wood?
What I have always carried is cotton balls mixed with petroleum jelly stored in a film canister. It's small and light, the cotton makes it easy to light and the petroleum jelly gives it quite a bit of heat. Just be careful not to get the jelly on your fingers when doing this, as otherwise, you can bu...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: When should I report a potentially injured-looking animal to authorities in a large, monitored, wildlife area?
In a National Park, unless the animal was harmed by a human, it seems like the park service isn't going to do anything. &#x201C;The rule of thumb is that if human activity causes an animal to become injured or orphaned, we may intervene. If not&#x2014;if it&#x2019;s something that happened natura...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: How much cooler space is required for transporting an elk?
Your going to want to debone it to pack it most efficiently into the coolers, otherwise the quarters are going to be too big and awkward to fit into the coolers and they are really heavy. Once deboned, place 20-25 lbs of meat into double bagged garbage bags for easier handling. From experience, som...
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about 2 years ago
Answer A: When should I avoid geotagging?
It seems likes this is mostly an issue of scale, in well-traveled areas where lots of people go it's not going to make a lot of difference, while remote areas that could possibly see lots of sudden traffic, it would not be a good thing. Also was one to be an "outdoor influencer" with thousands and t...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Will I be warmer in my sleeping bag inside or outside of my tent, when winter camping?
The tent will definitely be warmer because it keeps the wind away. As you are sleeping your body produces heat and a tent helps keep that warmer air around instead of it blowing away in the wind. With that said, tents don't provide a huge amount of insulation, and so perhaps a better sleeping bag is...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Does &#x201C;Pay attention to the ounces, and the pounds take care of themselves&#x201D; make sense when planning backpacking gear?
It does make sense to watch the weight of your gear and go for lighter gear when possible. A few ounces here and there will add up to pounds. On the other hand, it is also possible to be penny wise and pound foolish and in my experience at least, this is far more common, you will see overweight hike...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How to tie nylon straps to trees of unknown diameter
The straps I have multiple places to hook the carabiner on one end, You take the other end loop around the tree and then use the end with all of the places to hook to connect to the hammock.
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Best practices for physical and inventory management of a ready pack/bug out bag
In my experience when people are trying to inventory personal gear with a checklist or spreadsheet it comes from inexperience with using the gear. It you use it enough you will know which gear you need and which is just extra weight and what gear you might need. At the start a checklist can be usef...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Can a van be used for sleeping in National Park campgrounds in the US?
The prohibition on sleeping in a car is to prevent people from parking in the parking lots or pull outs and sleeping there and in effect camping outside of designated camp sites. If you park at a designated campsite that you pay for, nobody is going to care if you sleep in your car or outside or how...
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over 2 years ago
Question What are the pros and cons of single vs double sided magnets for magnet fishing?
There are two types of magnets sold for magnet fishing, Single sided with an eyelet on the top and the magnet directly below, and double sided with the eyelet on top of the circle and the magnets facing both directions. What are the pros and cons of each type of magnet for magnet fishing?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What are the pros and cons of cotton vs mesh filters for making cold brew coffee in a Nalgene water bottle?
From left to right, Nalgene 1 liter bottle, mesh filter, cotton sock filter. Cotton coffee sock, Lighter Folds up really small Harder to clean as the grounds will stick to it and get stuck inside. Can be used with fine coffee grounds. Metal mesh filter Heavier Takes up more room, the easiest...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How strong of a magnet is needed for magnet fishing for assorted metal objects?
After doing more research, If you look for fishing magnets that have an attachment for rope (usually an eyebolt) they start from approximately 100 lbs (45kg) and go all the way up to 1,200 lbs (544kg) with values around 3-400 lbs being the most common from what I could see. The other thing mentione...
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over 2 years ago
Question How strong of a magnet is needed for magnet fishing for assorted metal objects?
Magnet fishing is where you take a magnet and go fishing for metal objects (usually trash) in ponds, canals or lakes. I think this would be fun and would a good way to clear out some of the garbage from the canals, How strong of a magnet would one need?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What type of boat is this with a single mast and a square sail?
That is a cog, A cog is a type of ship that first appeared in the 10th century, and was widely used from around the 12th century on. Cogs were clinker-built, generally of oak, which was an abundant timber in the Baltic region of Prussia. This vessel was fitted with a single mast and a square-rigg...
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over 2 years ago
Question Under optimal conditions, how far could an emergency whistle be heard?
Whistles are often used for emergency signalling, it would be good to know how far that signal can travel and still be recognized. There are plenty of factors that would affect the distance, so how far would it travel under optimal conditions and then one could figure that real world conditions woul...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Why should a good tent be UV resistant?
It's because the sunlight will damage the tents fabric over time. UV damage occurs when long term exposure to the sun damages the fabric and thread of your tent or rain fly. The fabric will become thin and brittle. If you tent or rain fly seems to rip for no reason or with very light pressure, th...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How can a Common Kingfisher bird balance on a tiny swaying reed without moving its head?
This is called gaze stabilization and birds do it to keep one thing in focus even while their body is moving. What is head stabilization in birds? When the body of a bird is held in the hand and rotated or moved in different directions the head often appears &#x2018;locked in space&#x2019...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Where can I test an emergency whistle?
You just need a place where blowing a whistle wouldn't be out of the ordinary. Perhaps a city soccer/football field would work as people blow whistles there. Or if you could find an outdoor area where you know there won't be people around within hearing distance. A distress signal is given in 3s, ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What is "catskiing"?
Cat skiing is a type of guided skiing where the skiers go up the mountain in a snowcat, which is a tracked vehicle with an enclosed cabin. Also see, What is cat skiing Mustang Power Cat Skiing
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over 2 years ago
Question When filming wild animals with a drone, how far away does the drone need to be?
There is a video of a cub trying to follow the mother bear up a steep snowbank and then rolling back down at first. People are saying that it's a cute video but that the drone that filmed it got too close the bears. There are guidelines for how close one can get to an animal to prevent harassment, ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How do you take field notes at below 0 &#xB0;C, without freezing fingers?
When I worked at a salebarn in the winter we had this problem and the solution was multiple pens inside your shirt pocket under your coat. Pens will work for a while then get too cold at which point you switch it out for a new warm one. You might also look into the mittens that have gloved fingers...
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over 2 years ago
Question Is 5R barrel rifling more accurate than 4 or 6 groove rifling?
I am looking for a new hunting rifle, and one of the features I keep seeing advertised is 5R rifling where there are 5 lands and grooves instead of 4 or 6. Supposedly this makes the barrel more accurate because the lands oppose a groove instead of each other thus deforming the bullet less. I have y...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: I am lost, I found a trail, which way do I go?
Trails show less use the farther from the trailhead one goes because fewer people walk the trail all of the way to the end and most turn around far more quickly. The odds are that going downhill will lead one back to civilization, but in the odd exceptions where this is not true such as when one nee...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How predictable are the doldrums?
The latitudes in which they occur is predictable, the effects which range from calm to storms are not, Known to sailors around the world as the doldrums, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, (ITCZ, pronounced and sometimes referred to as the &#x201C;itch&#x201D;), is a belt around the Earth exten...
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over 2 years ago
Question Can wild rabbits be eaten in the summer or is the risk of disease too high?
I have heard that rabbits shouldn't be eaten in the summer because they have ticks and parasites on them at that time and that one should wait till after it freezes. Of course, you have to abide by hunting seasons, but some like jackrabbits can be hunted all year long. One can get diseases from rab...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What diseases can be transmitted through skin contact with a dead rabbit?
To answer the title question, there are a number of diseases you can get from wild rabbits, Zoonotic diseases specifically associated with rabbits include pasteurellosis, ringworm, mycobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis and external parasites. Rabbits can transmit bacteria through bites and scra...
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over 2 years ago
Question How much food is needed for three months of food when rowing across an ocean?
Related to this question, if one were to go on a three-month rowing trip across an ocean, is there an estimate of how much the food would be needed? It's certainly possible to give an estimate when backpacking, but rowing would be different and while I am sure that it would depend on the person, it ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How to tell the difference between a pika and a cottontail rabbit?
Pika Source Rounded ears No tail Short limbs Lives at high elevations, commonly above or around treeline Makes chirping noises. Protected species Eastern cottontail Source Large hind feet Long ears Powerful rear legs White underpatch underneath of the body Lives in meadows and forests Com...
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over 2 years ago
Question How to tell the difference between a pika and a cottontail rabbit?
Some users here seem to think that the animal in question is a pika and not a cottontail rabbit. How would one tell the difference between a pika and a cottontail rabbit?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Figure-8 Followthrough Question
Yes, regardless of how as you dress it, that is still a figure 8 knot. It's not going to matter either, because once the knot is weighted, it will be pulled into the same configuration regardless of the angle the loop is dressed to. In other words, the top picture will look like the bottom once fo...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What behaviors in bees change just before, during and after a solar eclipse?
There was a study that found that during totality, the bees stopped buzzing suddenly without any gradual slowdown. The researchers found that while the insects were happily buzzing throughout the day and during the partial phases of the eclipse, the bees went quiet the instant that the total ecli...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How to follow an existing angle when sharpening?
What you want is a guide in a knife sharpening kit that will hold the knife in place and the stones at the correct angle. Mine looks like this, you can see the angle marking on the left side of the holder (they are on both sides). The way it works is like so (pictured without the knife for clari...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How can I safely use a candle lantern inside a tent?
Okay after some more research, Don't leave it unattended (this would include sleeping). Don't let it touch flammable materials. Be careful touching it when its burning as you could burn yourself. Suspending it looks like a good way to go, just remember not to bump it with your head.
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over 2 years ago
Question How and when to sharpen ice screws?
Ice screws need to be sharp to be placed into the ice, and just like anything with an edge they will get dull over time. How would one know when to sharpen an ice screw, and once they do need to be sharpened, what is the correct technique to do so?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What rockfall protection equipment are there other than helmets?
There are two things you can do, Before climbing, look up the glacier and see which areas have had rockfall in the recent past and then avoid them. Rockfall will leave some rocks in the area that didn't make it all the way down, and vertical streaks caused by the rocking rolling down the glacier. S...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: At what angle should an ice screw be screwed into the ice?
All of the resources that I can find say that it should be done with the screw tip pointing up and the hanger below with up to a twenty-degree angle from horizontal. Contrary to what you might think, the best angle for the screws is slightly upward, meaning the hanger is slightly lower than...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What is an alternative sleep system if I don't want to use a down mummy bag for winter camping?
If you need extra insulation with a regular sleeping bag you can, Wear long johns, a sweatshirt and a stocking cap to bed. Hot water bottle in your sleeping bag. Put your extra clothes inside the sleeping bag so there isn't any empty space. Go to bed earlier before it gets real cold and stay in lon...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Did a bear knock all my bird feeders down?
Bears will definitely go smashing bird feeders to get to the seed and they are the only thing big enough to pull your feeders over. Yes, bears (and other wildlife) are readily attracted to back yards because of the presence of bird feeders. Bear nuisance complaint records reveal that at certain t...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What are directional, height, and distance guidelines for marking trails?
Here is the National Park Guidelines to your questions, Blazes are placed on trees or posts, slightly above eye level so that hikers can see them easily when traveling in either direction. In areas where the trail receives winter use, blazes are placed higher so they are visible above the sno...
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over 2 years ago
Question What is the estimated cost for through hiking the Pacific Crest Trail?
We have a question about the cost of through-hiking the AT and another about the cost of through hiking the CDT but not one about the PCT which is the other big trail in the United States. What is the estimated cost of through-hiking the Pacific Crest Trail (it's going to vary, but even ranges would...
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over 2 years ago
Question What are some good foods for recovering from calorie debt?
Calorie debt is when you are using more calories than you are eating and making up the difference from stored reserves of body fat. Sometimes people will do this to save on the amount of weight carried and then replenish when back at civilization. What are some good foods for recovering from calori...
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over 2 years ago
Question How is Chubby the alligators weight estimated?
There is a massive alligator in Florida that lives near a golf course, and he is estimated to be the largest alligator in Florida history assuming the estimations of his size are correct. Estimating his length seems fairly easy, but how would they estimate his weight?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Are grizzly bears attracted by human urine?
TLDR: Yes A bear&#x2019;s sense of smell is seven times stronger than a bloodhound. If you&#x2019;ve ever smelled coffee, alcohol, or yesterday&#x2019;s beetroot salad in your urine, bears can smell every donut and drip of hot sauce you&#x2019;ve eaten from miles away. There&#x2019;s no understan...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What factors lead to one firearm being louder than another?
There are a number of different factors that would result in less noise, Smaller cartridges &#x2013; e.g., .22 rimfires instead of bottleneck rifle cartridges like .308 Winchesters (140 dB vs 167 dB) Longer barrels as the noise is farther away from your ear and there is less pressure at the muzzle ...
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over 2 years ago
Question What factors lead to one firearm being louder than another?
Related to this question, firearms make different levels of noise depending on the firearm in question and the choice of ammunition. What factors cause one firearm to be louder than another?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What is the most methodical way to try to get yourself unlost? (Assume below timberline in a temperate climate)
In most cases, and certainly in this one, you want to go downhill following water if at all possible. Downhill will take you to civilization in almost all cases as humans have tended to settle in the valleys and not on the mountaintops. Going downhill will also help one find more water as streams g...
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over 2 years ago
Question What NRR (Noise Reduction Rating) should one look for in hearing muffs/earplugs for indoor shooting?
Most hearing muffs/earplugs have a noise reduction rating of between 22 to 35 NRR. OSHA says, Impulse Noise: The standard states that exposure to impulsive or impact noise should not exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure level. There is a table of firearm decibel levels here the full-size rifle ca...
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over 2 years ago
Question In a survival situation is it actually efficient to eat edible plants?
In a survival situation is it actually efficient to eat edible plants? Assume late spring to early fall in a temperate climate. We have plenty of questions about where to find edible plants and how to identify them, but I have read that one would expend more energy in gathering them than it would b...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What are some challenges to starting a small business that runs backpacking trips?
A list of all the possible challenges I can think of at the moment, Insurance, specifically liability insurance. Medical training for you and any employees, the standard certification is Wilderness First Responder. Government permits, commercial trips can require a special use permit. Purchasing ge...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What is this black and yellow-striped caterpillar with four toothbrush-looking tufts of hair along the top?
That is a White Marked Tussock Moth. The long, spiky tufts of hairs give fair warning to anyone or anything that tries to touch this species' larva. The caterpillar is covered with them and the chemicals that are transferred onto skin when touched can cause an allergic reaction in humans resulti...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Etiquette of playing musical instruments on popular hikes
Just don't play your music with the aid of any electronic speakers. People sing and talk and laugh as they hike and that's fine, its when they start blaring music on their waterproof bluetooth speakers that it starts to get annoying. Just note that it will make you less aware of your surroundings, I...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Is a tree that has been standing dead for a year dry enough for firewood?
I have done lots of heating via firewood, and while wood from a standing dead tree is pretty dry, once it has been sawn into lengths there is so much more surface area that you can then dry it out much more completely. Wood from standing dead trees that have been cut down and stored for a while as w...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Lead free brass fittings on potable water hoses
It looks like yes garden hose connectors are not regulated to the same level as say interior hoses, One section which may be neglected however, is the home&#x2019;s garden hose. While seeming miniscule, if not addressed, the garden hose can still be a source of lead exposure; it is, after all, of...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Guidelines to reduce risk of exposure to, or infection from Naegleria fowleri? (brain-eating amoeba)
Here is what the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention say The only certain way to prevent a Naegleria fowleri infection due to swimming is to refrain from water-related activities in warm freshwater. Personal actions to reduce the risk of Naegleria fowleri infection should focus on limiting...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How can you identify whether brackish water is too salty to drink?
Just taste it. As in this answer, normal saline matches what you have in you at 9 grams of salt to a liter of water (this is 9 times as much as Gatorade). If you ever try to drink the stuff, its way too salty to be enjoyable (and is normally given intravenously for dehydration). So if the salty wa...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How to recognize an ocean desert from the surface?
To some extent, this is mapped out, but the easier way to tell is by the color of the water. Ocean deserts are characterized by less plankton and thus Chlorophyll. Therefore, the water in an ocean desert will be bluer and less green than the water in an area with plenty of nutrients and oxygen and p...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Water filters: is there always a tradeoff between longevity and safety
If the water is muddy or there are swimmers, then the usual solution is to prefilter before treating. A handkerchief is usually sufficient for filtering out all of the visible swimming bugs and sand/dirt although it won't filter out any of the things that will make you sick. Then you can treat/filte...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: OS Map Symbols - Black Dots
According to the Ordnance Survey legend, those are BOUNDARIES Civil Parish (CP); England or Community (C); Wales See page 6 of the legend under boundaries. There are no other small black dots on the legend.
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over 2 years ago
Question Why would a seal be flinging an octopus around above the water and then slapping a kayaker with it?
There is a video of a seal sucker punching a kayaker with an octopus, Source I suppose the seal wasn't exactly trying to hit the kayaker, but why would it be flinging the octopus around above the surface of the water?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Can I eat Rabbit Poop?
There is one story of someone doing this, You see rabbits are animals that chew their cud. Unlike ruminant animals-cows-they don't have divisions or multiple stomachs. You see, a rabbit on first pass excretes little balls of hi-energy, vegan wrapped enzymes. The rabbit, a few hours or days later...
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over 2 years ago
Question If you are stranded at sea with a basic set of fishing equipment, how reliable of a food supply are fish?
We have a question about desalinating water while stranded at sea, and another that asks if you can get desalinated water from eating fish. However, even if you could get desalinated water from fish which, how likely is it that one would be able to catch enough fish to keep from starving? There are...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Are there any natural materials that can be used as a magnifying lens (or to craft one)?
It's possible to do it with ice that has been shaped into a convex lens. The ice needs to be clear and fairly large like 5 inches across. Obviously this won't work in the summer, and the cold temperatures won't help either, but it does look like it can be done. See, How To Start A Fire Using Magni...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What is the life expectancy of Propane/CO detector?
It depends on the device but 5-7 years seems like the max with some as short as 2 years. The gas sensors in CO alarms have a limited and indeterminable life span, typically two to five years. The test button on a CO alarm only tests the battery and circuitry, not the sensor. CO alarms should be t...
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over 2 years ago
Question What exactly would change if most of the Grand Canyon was designated as wilderness?
Related to this question, there are people advocating that most of the Grand Canyon National park be designated as Wilderness. What exactly would change in the allowed activities (some say it would prevent motorized rafts) or in how the park is managed?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Are there Takedown Compound Bows?
Possibly, but I highly doubt it. The thing is that it's not that easy to restring a compound bow and most people would probably pay someone else to do it for them. Recurve bows are much easier to restring yourself and they do make takedown version of them. In theory one could do this by simply disa...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Hiking and camping with medium size dog and keeping safe from mountain lions
Generally speaking, the most legal proof solution is to hike in a group and or with a dog. While really small dogs do get preyed on by mountain lions from time to time, the dogs used for treeing mountain lions are not necessarily very big especially when compared to a mountain lion. You might also c...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What is a good way to clean the inside of a water bottle straw while on a multi-day backpacking trip?
I would make an improvised bore snake with a piece of string or fishing line and a small piece of clean cloth and pull the piece of cloth through the straw just like you would a gun barrel. Everyone should have at least some string and something like handkerchief which you might have to cut down to ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How can I carry my compound bow in a backpack without showing any parts of it?
You have a couple of options, A soft case for your bow, put the bow inside the case and strap the whole thing to your backpack. A bow case with backpack straps. A bow case with a padded shoulder sling (these are more common than ones with backpack straps).
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What are the pros and cons of first vs second focal plane rifle scopes?
The technical difference is on which focal plane the reticle is etched on, at the focal plane between the objective and the image erector lens system (the First Focal Plane (FFP)), or the focal plane between the image erector lens system and the eyepiece (the Second Focal Plane (SFP)). Source ...
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over 2 years ago
Question What are the pros and cons of first vs second focal plane rifle scopes?
There are two types of rifle scopes when it comes to which focal plane the reticle is etched on and they are called first or second focal plane scopes. What is the difference between the two types and why would one choose one over the other?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Plant Identification: White Mushroom or Fungus found in Indiana
Those look like oyster mushrooms. They are the right size and color and have the right type of gills. Pleurotus ostreatus, is a common edible known for its oyster-shaped cap. One of the first things you should look for when trying to identify this mushroom is the presence of decurrent gills. ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What tool(s) would be useful for trimming fishing line?
You need something that works with a pinching motion and is on a lanyard for easy access. Fingernail clippers will work, and there are also fishing specific clippers. Source Knives would require two hands and scissors like on a multitool need to be opened with both. Clippers on the other hand ar...
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over 2 years ago
Question What tool(s) would be useful for trimming fishing line?
After tying on a new fly when fly fishing, you need to trim the excess string. As this needs to happen every time, what tool(s) would make the job easier?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Can I tie down ski/snow board to my roof rack like a canoe?
Yes, this should work. You may want to pad your roof rack so they don't scratch each other and make sure they are strapped tightly but other than that it should work fine. Just orientate them in line with the vehicle and make sure the straps are tight.
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What tool(s) would be helpful for unhooking fish?
The best tool I have found for this is a Hemostat. Source They are long and thin, enabling you to reach in and get to fishhooks that are deep inside and can be locked onto the hook. It's also really easy to carry them when fly fishing, you simply clamp them onto your fishing vest and then they ...
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over 2 years ago
Question What tool(s) would be helpful for unhooking fish?
When fishing in catch and release areas, one needs to be able to unhook the fish and return them to the water unharmed. What tool(s) would be useful for this?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How is elevation gain and change measured for hiking trails?
You almost have it, you don't count the downhills. In running, cycling, and mountaineering, cumulative elevation gain refers to the sum of every gain in elevation throughout an entire trip. It is sometimes also known as cumulative gain or elevation gain, or often in the context of mountain travel...
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over 2 years ago
Question What are these small corroded canisters on top of a mountain in Nevada?
I found these small corroded canisters on top of a mountain in Nevada, They were about 3 inches long and some had a metal post inside that has green corrosion on them. I think they are trash from when the nearby survey marker was put in 1944. What are they?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How to keep your fingernail clippers together?
Did some experimenting, and it looks like its only possible for them to come apart when the lever is up, so all you should need to do is store it in the down configuration and if you needed the extra security, keep them that way with a rubber band. It takes a little bit of force and coordination to ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Dealing with twists in a rope while belaying
If this happens, you want to stop the climber and try and untwist by flicking the rope out with your non brake hand without releasing the braking strand. You can also try flicking the loops out with your brake hand so long as it stays behind the braking plane. Honestly though, this should be less of...
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over 2 years ago
Question How to fix tears in waterproof pants?
I found a pair of waterproof pants abandoned on the trail, they were fine except for several large rips that the previous owner had tried to fix with ductape. How can I patch these rips?
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over 2 years ago
Question What advantage would noodling have over fishing with rod and reel?
We have a question about how noodling compares to regular fishing for the effect on fish populations, but after reading about it, I am failing to see what the advantages to the humans are. Basically, why would sticking your arm in a hole to catch a fish and hoping to get a fish and not a snapping tu...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What bug is this?
That looks like a Tropical leatherleaf slug. The Tropical Leatherleaf (Laevicaulis alte) is found in both urban and forested areas. The animal is brownish, usually with darker speckles, and has a pale line on its back. It is not known whether it is native or not, though scientists think it is mos...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Is noodling more detrimental to catfish populations than fishing with a rod and reel?
Yes, because of which catfish are taken and when. Specifically, because it targets the mature catfish when they are guarding their nests. The problem with this technique is that noodling targets large, mature blue and flathead catfish while they are spawning. During their spawning times, these c...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Is there a standard hiking trail difficulty rating system in the United States?
In short no for hiking trails, the closest one will ever get to a standard difficulty rating are the first 3 classes of the Yosemite Decimal System. Beyond that, there are many different scales of measuring difficulty, Shenandoah's Hiking Difficulty is determined by a numerical rating using the...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Is it dangerous to go to Mountains when snow is melting?
There are several things that can be more dangerous in the mountains when the snow is melting, There can be an increased risk of avalanche danger. Snowbridges over crevasses can be melting out. Bergschrunds widen up and pull away from the rock. In bolder fields the rocks trap the heat and then melt...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Can I use a trail camera to identify a roadside litterer?
Yes, this should work, trail cameras are used quite frequently to catch people littering. We know this because a hidden camera caught it all on tape. Juneau police used the footage to find the woman, Janessa Sanbei, and fine her for littering -- one of five tickets issued this spring after the in...
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over 2 years ago
Question How to keep a trail camera from being stolen?
Trail cameras are setup up on trails to take pictures of wild animals when you aren't around. The problem with that is that other people may find them and may be tempted to steal them. How can I prevent a trail camera from growing a pair of legs and walking away?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What features of a trail camera make it easier for photographing animals than other cameras?
Trail cameras are motion sensitive cameras that are secured to trees or other objects to capture animals or people passing by on a trail. They look like this, Source They have attachments for the straps and lights for a flash after dark, some will infrared pictures as well and video and they ar...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How to store roe (fish eggs) at home in a refrigerator?
From what I have seen, you want to keep the eggs away from oxygen to keep them good so you should probably put a lid on the container. Unlike other baits that harden over time, salmon eggs get softer, making it more difficult to keep them on the hook. The solution? Vander Mause recommends storing...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Is there a simple at-home test to objectively measure the insulating value of a sleeping pad?
If you want to test a sleeping pad's insulation yourself at home, then the way to do that would be to try sleeping outside your house in and see how they work. That is worth doing because you might sleep differently from the next person. On the other hand, it seems like there is no simple way to ret...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How to deal with changing clothing which was used while cooking as not to attract a bears?
The easiest solution would be to have a designated set of clothes to cook with and then just hang/store them with the food. See this question and answer. Keeping the food off of your clothes and not swiping your dirty hands on your pants helps too. Beyond that, you can try less smelly food and keep...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: In the US is it legal to travel on any river/creek my canoe will navigate?
All waters no, some places like National Parks require permits, see Dinosaur Monument and Canyonlands. It also differs state by state, in some states the water belongs to the public but not the stream bed, so floating is fine but using an anchor is trespassing. In other states the public has a right...
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over 2 years ago
Question How does dental floss compare to fishing line in a survival situation?
It is possible to catch fish with a hook and dental floss, and the flies can just be stored stuck in the brim of a hat or very small tin and then one improvises a rod from a stick. The advantage of taking dental floss is that it could be used for flossing in addition to catching fish but how does it...
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over 2 years ago
Question If you are canoeing on a lake when whitecaps start happening, what is the best direction to get off the lake?
If you are canoeing on a lake and the wind suddenly starts blowing to the point where there are whitecaps, what is the best direction to head to get off the lake? Would it be the shortest way back to the shore or would one take the direction of the wind into account?
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over 2 years ago
Question Are there US Forest Service maps of historical logging?
Some forests in the Western United States will have been logged at different times and by different methods i.e. clearcut vs selective logging. As time goes by, the trees will grow back but this results in different environments and amount of wildlife as well as some areas being easier to hike with ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Why is it undesirable for the New Forest to convert to a mature forest?
It seems like it would be a combination of loss of the way it has been and of the beneficial effects of grazing. Grazing can have both positive and negative effects, and can benefit certain species at the expense of others so its all a balancing effect. Cattle are thought to provide biodiversity...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What is a 'Whitecap' and why should I be concerned about boating in them?
White caps are named for the white caps at the top of waves. White caps are sign that the wind is picking up and that the weather conditions are getting worse and look like this at low wind levels. Source By the Beaufort scale these start happening at between 7-10 knots. Its even more dangerous...
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over 2 years ago
Question Will mountain lions eat wild horses?
If I remember correctly, someone proposed that the problem of wild horses over populating in the western United States would be to let the mountain lions control the populations. Would mountain lions actually eat the wild horses, and if so, would this be enough to control the wild horse population? ...
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over 2 years ago
Question How stuffed is a sleeping bag stuffed in its recommended stuff sack size?
Sleeping bags often have a recommended stuff sack size given either in dimensions or volume i.e. 6 x 11 inches or 5 liters. Is the recommended size for how small it can get for backpacking or is it more the size of what one could store the bag in? To put it another way, does the recommended stuff s...
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over 2 years ago
Question If you are starting to tie your own fly fishing flies, what types would be the easiest to start with?
The are two main types of fly fishing flies, wet (sink underneath) and dry (float on top). If one were trying to learn how to how tie the flies yourself instead of buying them, would one type be easier to start with rather than the other?
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over 2 years ago
Question What to look for in a rifle bipod?
I am planning on getting a bipod for my rifle, in the hope of being more accurate and able to hit targets at longer ranges. What features should I look for in a rifle bipod?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What group of people call themselves "Outdoor Influencers", and what do they do regarding natural areas of land?
Basically it's people with large social media followings who use their influence on those platforms, especially Instagram, to influence people to visit outdoor places, buy outdoor things and support outdoor causes. Their Instagrams of beautiful vistas have brought attention to environmental issues &#...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What constitutes mountain exposure when hiking or scrambling?
Exposure is more a feeling that there is nothing below you in the event of a fall rather than a steepness. A trail that was level as it winds its way around a mountain but has a 1500 ft drop off on one side would be considered exposed, while Class 3 moves up a slope might not be depending on the per...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Safest way to carry ebooks outdoors?
I would just get a waterproof case for whatever electronic device you have the books on and then a waterproof/impact resistant USB flash drive for the books. SD cards are more breakable and prone to getting lost or misplaced than USB flash drives. A quick price checks says you can get a Water p...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Are there any credible estimates of how much of the US National Park System does not have cell phone reception? If so, what do they conclude?
I believe what you are looking for can be found here, Cellular Coverage in National Parks which has cell phone coverage maps for a number of National Parks in the US. It depends on the park and has no percentages, but its probably the best one can get. I will note that based on my experience in RMN...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How to tie a Purcell Prusik from a single end?
Note: This knot works better in smaller diameter cords, but its easier to demonstrate with larger ones so that is what is in the pictures. To start with you go over the top of the rope and then do 2-3 coils back towards the what will be the closed loop before bring it back over where you started. ...
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over 2 years ago
Question How to tie a Purcell Prusik from a single end?
There is the regular Purcell Prusik, which can be used for adjustable tethers or create foot loops for ascending a rope, but it is also useful to know how to tie it with only one end of the rope instead of a loop. This knot is useful for tightening lines holding tarps out for example, how would one ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Is there a backpacker's guide to edible plants that is very light?
There are multiple guides to edible foods, it looks like you would be most interested in would cover all of North America and if you are wanting to go light, there are pocket guides. I found quite a few including, Edible Wild Plants and Herbs: A Pocket Guide Edible Wild Plants: A North American F...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Is there any effective repellent against deer flies (Lipoptena cervi)?
It looks like lemon eucalyptus extract has some effect, It is concluded that the use of a repellent based on lemon eucalyptus extract (tested in 2004-2005) will protect humans from Deer ked bites, but just on those parts of the skin where the repellent has been applied. The smell of lemon eucalyp...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Is it possible get a rash from poison ivy but not poison oak?
According to the American Academy of Dermatology its the same oil in both poison ivy and poison oak along with sumac, What you see and feel on your skin is caused by urushiol (you-ROO-shee-all). Urushiol is the oil in poison ivy, oak, and sumac. You find this oil in all parts of the plants &#x201...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What's this backpack part called and how can I get a replacement?
It looks like this piece goes by 3 different names, Sternum Slider Image source Piping Clip Image Source Wing Clip You could also try contacting the manufacture, since these parts don't seem to be extremely common.
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How use a nylon cordelette as an adjustable tether for rock climbing?
The solution to this is a Purcell Prussik, that looks like this, It's a cordelette tied into a loop with a double fisherman's, and then looped back with a prussik to itself. See here for how to tie one. If I need more slack, I reach up and pull the prussik towards myself, if I need to go shorter ...
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over 2 years ago
Question How use a nylon cordelette as an adjustable tether for rock climbing?
Sometimes when clipping in people who are rappelling, or setting up anchors in some places from above or showing people how to get onto a fixed line, I need an adjustable tether. I often carry a nylon cordelette for just such a purpose, what knot should I use?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How to tie a Purcell prusik?
Note: You want to keep the double fisherman's knot close to the opposite end, but offset slightly, this gives you maximum adjustability while being able to use the far end as a prusik as well if necessary. There are two ways I have done this, Tie a normal prusik (described here) around something ...
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over 2 years ago
Question How to tie a Purcell prusik?
One of the more useful knots for climbing is the Purcell prusik (related to but not a regular prussik), which can be used as an adjustable tether or for ascending a rope among other things. How would one tie it?
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over 2 years ago
Question How are backpacking quotas per trailhead in US national parks determined?
Trailheads at some national parks like Yosemite or some wilderness areas will have quotas, with a certain number of permits per trailhead available per day. Usually, the permits are split between those that can be reserved in advance and those that are available at the ranger stations for people to ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: SERE Surival Kit includes velcro finger lights, but why?
The point of the velcro is to hold the light onto your finger, and the extra length makes it possible to use with gloves. These have several advantages, Originally designed for pilots, the popularity of these simple-to-use lights have made them required tools for ground forces, battle tank, medi...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What does contouring mean in the context of navigation/orienteering?
Contouring means to follow the contours of the land to your destination, trying to stay at the same elevation as you work your way around the hill. In this example you would walk up the hill, and upon reaching the given height, stay at that level while walking towards the destination. Sometimes, ...
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over 2 years ago
Question What does contouring mean in the context of navigation/orienteering?
One of the techniques while navigating in the outdoors is known as contouring, what does this mean and when would it be useful?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Will the Trailhead Registry burn in a forest fire?
They probably will burn, see this one for example, Image Source Also wood has a higher ignition temperature. Sometimes they are in metal boxes on metal posts, but quite often they are wood or metal boxes on top of wood posts. Also, They don't always have paper. The paper doesn't always have s...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What to do if you are above timberline and your descent is cut off by a large forest fire?
Option 2 is better, as activating your PLB will divert resources that could be used to fight the forest fire, and put other people in unnecessary danger (PLBs aren't a get out of danger free card). Fires rarely go above tree line, Alpine tundra areas in the [Colorado] San Juans rarely burn becau...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Are there any large knife/saw multitools for pocket or belt use?
You for large saws that also fit in a pocket, it looks like the best solution is a "pocket chainsaw" which is basically a chainsaw blade that you pull back and forth with your hands. Image Source There are dedicated folding saws, Image Source and also large folding saws, some that are the sam...
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over 2 years ago
Question How common is it for a mother duck to adopt ducklings?
There is a recent story of how one mother duck kept adopting more ducklings that weren't hers and eventually ended up with 76 ducklings. This is called "brood amalgamation", how common is it among ducks?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What makes some of the lakes in the Himalayas saline?
In all of these cases it's because they are Endorheic, which is a fancy way of saying that they have inputs but no outputs. The salt that is carried down by the precipitation is trapped in the lake with no where to go and so over time, the lakes become saline. Endorheic lakes are usually in the i...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How can I distinguish between rock pile types cairn, duck, and natural?
In short, Cairn -> many rocks piled up Duck -> 3-4 rocks stacked on top of each other. Natural -> Small rocks don't stack directly on top of each other, gravity tends to spread them out. In any case, they usually aren't necessary, except in places with lots of fog such as the White Mountains of N...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: When is improvised water filtration warranted for survival?
It depends on the timeframe, Dehydration will kill you within days, giardia takes much longer to develop and can be treated once you are out of the backcountry. People have died because they didn't want to drink muddy water. If you are going to be a long time out from getting back, keeping healthy ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Relative risks of various outdoor activities?
There is some data on this but mostly it's the really broad type that aren't particularly useful, and its scattered all over the place. It also depends on what type of data you look at, rock climbing has a lower rate of injuries per hour spend climbing than Nordic skiing, but a higher fatality rate ...
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over 2 years ago
Question Does listening with an ear to the ground actually work?
In movies, sometimes the character will put an ear to the ground and then hear people moving a long ways away example. Does this actually work in the wild at all or is it just insufficient for anything short of a horde of orcs herd of buffalo?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Which is bigger, as in longer, Omura's whale or Blue whale?
Blue whales are larger by quite a large margin so it looks like whatever you read was wrong. In fact, the Blue whale is the largest recorded mammal, and the Omura's is one of the smallest whales. Interestingly, Omura's was not established as its own breed until between 2003 and 2006. Previously it wa...
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over 2 years ago
Question When slacklining between trees, how big should the tree trunks be?
Often times in city parks people will use the trees for slacklining, the problem comes when they use trees that are not big enough, and given enough time and users this can be unhealthy for the trees. I realize that there are different kinds of trees, but a general rule of thumb would still be helpf...
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over 2 years ago
Question What are the pros and cons of cotton vs mesh filters for making cold brew coffee in a Nalgene water bottle?
From my research so far into making cold brew coffee in a Nalgene while backpacking, I have found there to be two types of filters, cotton ones called "coffee socks" and mesh ones that screw onto the top of the bottle. I like the idea of cold brewing because I fairly often don't bring a stove, and I...
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over 2 years ago
Question Is there an actual advantage of switchblade folding knives over any other method of opening a folding blade with one hand?
More states in the US are decriminalizing switchblades, yet there are many other methods of opening a folding knife with one hand such as studs on the blade or groove to make it easier to open. I am not talking about the ones that have double edged blades but rather standard folding knives such as t...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Is it generally safe to hike a pass in a thunderstorm?
The pass is safer than the peaks on either side of it, but less safe than not hiking over the pass. When I did my Instructors course for Summit Adventure, hiking over a pass during a thunderstorm would have been considered extremely unwise, and the procedure would have been to either not cross or t...
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over 2 years ago
Question How is the maximum legal altitude for campfires determined?
In most national parks in the United States, campfires are prohibited above certain elevations (9,600 ft for Yosemite,10,000 ft for Ansel Adams with exceptions). This is a good thing because after a certain height the trees don't grow fast enough for campfires to be sustainable. Do note that this a...
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over 2 years ago
Question Would dry or wet flies be easier for a beginner fly fisherman?
Inspired by this question, if someone was just starting out fly fishing, would dry flies (float on top of the water) or wet flies (sink below) be easier for a beginner to use? My experience is that wet flies are easier, but it has been a while, and I haven't showed a new person in a long time. Woul...
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over 2 years ago
Question What is the survival rate for fish restocked via airplane?
In some places in the western United States, game fish are stocked into lakes via planes for fishing (every so often lakes will freeze to the point that it kills the fish). I have heard stories of backpackers coming upon lakes where the planes missed and there being lots of bear food fish on the sho...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How do fly fishing lures work?
For fly fishing, there are two types of flies, wet and dry. The wet flies are designed to sink and bitten by the fish underwater, while the dry lures are designed to sit on top and the fish will come up and bite them. If you are really lucky the fish will leap out of the water to do so. The short v...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How do forest fires affect rain run-off?
Basically it increases the runoff in a number of ways, less soil cover in the form of vegetation, ash blocking the water from being absorbed, and in some cases a hydrophobic water coating can be left behind. Loss of vegetation exposes soil to erosion; water runoff may increase and cause flooding;...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Reusing disposable water bottles vs. buying dedicated bottles
The problem with using the cheap bottles is that if they break, you can be in serious trouble. A quick price check says that 32 oz nalgenes go for around 10 bucks and 2 liter hydration bladders for around the same, so are you really saving that much money for the extra trouble? I have seen Nalgene 3...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Fittings to connect together two hydration bladders
No, pretty sure there isn't one but you do have a couple of options, Just bring two bladders and switch to the other when empty. There are 6 liter MSR dromedaries that I have used for when you need to pack water in larger amounts. There are double hydration bladders with two chambers, but it seems ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What is the defintion of a "unisex tent"?
This looks like a combination of keyword stuffing and people in the UK apparently wanting unisex products. It might be like labeling things that don't normally contain gluten as gluten-free for the extra exposure. For example of keyword stuffing in titles consider, Coleman Water Repellent Instant...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How do I weave the backpack shoulder straps when there are two strap adjusters?
You would only want to use one of them at a time. With that said there are a couple of possibilities here, There is another strap that you have missed that goes to the second point (this is the most likely option) There was a strap that used to go there but was cut off. I would double check the b...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Artificial reintroduction of wild animals: how frequently does it happen, and what is the purpose?
It happens fairly often, and usually the purpose is to reintroduce the animals to places where they used to be but were wiped out. This is know as species reintroduction/restablishment. Species reintroduction is the deliberate release of a species into the wild, from captivity or other areas wher...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Is there any evidence that black bears (or other large predators) are indifferent to, or acutally repulsed by, the scent of humans?
For certain, bears noses are good enough to smell humans, whether that is a deterrent or a sign that unsecured food might be nearby probably depends on the state of bear-human relations with areas like Yosemite where bears are used to humans being different from places with hunting. Hunters hunting ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How best to hold/aim a Garmin InReach for satellite messaging?
I have used a Garmin inReach for many miles, and your location will be more important than how you hold it. Deep canyons with throw off the GPS Signal and sometimes being under thick trees will prevent the signal from going through the first time. I have also had trouble when under trees plus a tarp...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How do songbirds and small animals know when there's a hawk in the immediate vicinity?
All it takes is one of the birds to notice and give the alarm and then the other birds join in. Even the chipmunks and squirrels will listen to the birds and then pass the message along. Birds' lives are so filled with danger that they're on alert at all times, just to stay alive. Luckily, they h...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How to tape torn skin to continue climbing?
Been there done that, I would just wrap a smaller width piece of climber's tape around the finger and then take extra care to smooth the end down as usually, that's where it starts to come unraveled. I would make sure to try and get most of the tape around the middle piece of your finger in between ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Would it make sense to backpack with an 8 lb tent at Philmont Scout Ranch?
Whether an 8 lb tent makes sense depends on a couple of things, If you are the only one using it then no, if you can split the weight between 4 people probably yes. Whether for your budget you can get a lighter tent, the lighter you go the more expensive it will be, at some point it won't be worth ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What are good dive sites to scuba dive with cuttlefish?
It looks like they are all around the world, except for American waters, with special concentrations in Whyalla Australia. They are widely distributed according to species. For example the European common cuttlefish is found all along the eastern Atlantic from Scandinavia to South Africa and the ...
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over 2 years ago
Question Is there a recommended type of can for building a penny stove?
Related to this question, I have had better luck with the smaller energy drink/V8 juice cans than standard 12 oz pop cans. The other question on the site mentions both beer and Redbull cans. Is there a recommended type of can for building a penny stove?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How accurate is the method of finding north with a watch?
TLDR: Its accurate at solar noon which probably won't correspond to noon on a watch and is inaccurate otherwise without more information. Reasons for it not corresponding to noon on your watch. Failing to account for Daylight Savings Time The difference between solar time and the time zone. Going ...
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over 2 years ago
Question How accurate is the method of finding north with a watch?
There is a method of finding north with a watch described here So you point the hour hand of your watch at the sun. Halfway between your hour hand and the noon mark is south. How accurate is this method of finding north?
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over 2 years ago
Question How much difference does wind chill make if you are inside a snow cave?
From this answer, -148 &deg;F has been survived inside a snow cave, and this question is asking for the unadjusted temperature, which leads me to wonder how much the wind chill would matter. If you have your cave built properly, you should be out of the wind, except for the holes necessary for venti...
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over 2 years ago
Question What is the difference between AMO/AMA and ASTM spine declarations?
This question asks "Are the Goldtip and Easton spine declarations AMO/AMA or ASTM??", What exactly is the difference between AMO/AMA and ASTM spine declarations and what difference does it make?
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over 2 years ago
Question What is the reasoning behind not disposing of fish guts in the water?
Quite a few fishing regulations say something similar to this, Don&#x2019;t dispose of fish entrails or other byproducts into any body of water 2018 Colorda Fishing Fish die in the water all of the time, what is the reasoning behind not disposing of fish guts in the water? Related to both "...
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over 2 years ago
Question Is there a standard way of marking cooking alcohol containers?
The alcohol used for cooking is poisonous. Denatured alcohol, also called methylated spirit (methylated spirits in Australia and New Zealand) or denatured rectified spirit, is ethanol that has additives to make it poisonous, bad tasting, foul smelling or nauseating, to discourage recreational co...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What is the most severe temperature that a proper snow cave can protect you from?
TLDR: -148 &deg;F including windchill has been survived inside of a snowcave. I went looking for cases of people surviving extremely low temperatures while inside a snow caves, and it looks like the record is held by the climbers who did the first winter ascent on Denali. On February 28, 1967, D...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Under what conditions does heating a tent artificially make objective sense?
I would say there really aren't any. Even a hypothermia patient would get wrapped in a hypo wrap and the stove would be used to boil water to go into Nalgene bottles. The problems with running a heater inside of a tent include, Catching the tent on fire. Carbon monoxide poisoning. There are heat...
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over 2 years ago
Question What can I add to alcohol to make the flame visible?
One of the downsides of an alcohol stove is that the alcohol is all but invisible when it burns, and so the danger is that you won't realize its going and burn yourself. I have heard that adding regular table salt will make the flame light orange, if that is so how much would one need or are there a...
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over 2 years ago
Question When building a penny stove how do you keep the cans from splitting?
Penny stoves are usually built from two soda cans and they look like this, Image source with some variations between the builder and so on. The basic idea is you have the bottoms of two soda cans stuck together with one inside the other. The problem I have always had is that when I go to put the...
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over 2 years ago
Question What conditions would make a weather inversion likely?
An inversion in weather terminology is when the temperature actually rises with altitude, instead of decreasing like it usually does. As the lapse rate can be useful for calculating temperatures at higher altitudes but will be thrown off by inversions, it would be good to know when inversions are li...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How accurate is the 3.5 - 5 degree F temperature drop per 1000 feet rule of thumb?
TLDR: The rate is accurate unless you have an inversion, in which case it is completely inaccurate as the temperature will actually increase above a certain altitude. With increasing height, air temperature within the troposphere and mesosphere drops uniformly with altitude at a rate of approxima...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Why are birds so nervous around humans?
A lot of this is the natural instinct, birds that didn't fear humans got wiped out in earlier times, natural selection selects for birds that avoided getting eaten. Today in urban places the ducks or Canadian Geese who have been fed by humans have less fear and can even become aggressive towards hum...
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over 2 years ago
Question What would make one brick wall harder than another?
Inspired mostly by this question, where a person was asking what the climbing rating of a brick wall was. Compared to all of the varied climbs in nature with the many different rock features and types, brick walls seem like they would be much more uniform (especially in vertical angle) and have to b...
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over 2 years ago
Question What should a beginner look for in a sextant?
I have an interest in sextants and how they work, mostly from reading the Horatio Hornblower novels. I know that sextants are still sold, and while I am sure that are not nearly as precise as GPS is nowadays it would still be a fun project to learn how to use them. What should a beginner look for w...
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over 2 years ago
Question Why couldn't you eat frozen bait shrimp?
We have a question about how to store dead bait shrimp, both answers suggest that you can simply eat the bait shrimp, but one says, As for freezing them, they won't be alive anymore but they should still work as bait. Whatever you do though don't cook or eat the frozen shrimp. Out of curiosity ...
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over 2 years ago
Question What are the pros and cons of plastic and aluminim vs wood vs composite paddles for canoeing?
There are three main types of canoe paddle materials, Wooden paddles. Plastic paddles with aluminum handles. Newer composite materials (fiberglass, carbon) What would be the pros and cons of each type of paddle material for canoeing?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Do male mountain lions kill their own kittens?
TLDR: They will kill unrelated kittens, and may not be able to tell the difference. Females usually do not allow the male to approach the kittens as he may kill them because he does not recognize them as his own offspring. When a resident male is killed and a new male arrives in the vacant terr...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Will a lighter trigger pull help me be more accurate?
After finally purchasing a lighter trigger (3-4 lbs), I can say that yes, it does help one be more accurate. It's much easier when you don't have to pull as hard, and the cleaner break makes it it much less jumpy when you go to pull. It's also more enjoyable when you don't have to pull the trigger ...
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over 2 years ago
Question What are the effects of introducing raccoons into Germany?
I was reading this answer about how raccoons were introduced into Germany, and after the other questions on this site about the harm caused by non-native species,(grey squirrels, house sparrows, etc), it made me wonder what it the effects of raccoons were especially since there is some debate on the...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Where and how is it allowed to hunt cougars in the US?
Mountain lion hunting is legal in the western parts of the United States, with the exception of California. Regarding licenses and quotas, there are three types, Tags, with limited numbers availiable. Over the counter licenses with quotas. Unprotected, no license necessary. The taking of large m...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Name of this freshwater fish with diamond shaped spots and a single top fin, caught in a river in South Florida, USA
That looks like a mangrove snapper, (there are quite a few different names of snapper) and I am making the identification on two things, the pattern of diamond shaped spots and the top fin being whole and not split into two fins.. See this picture of a mangrove snapper. Image Source
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over 2 years ago
Question Do male mountain lions kill their own kittens?
Stallions will kill unrelated foals, but I have heard that male mountain lions will kill their own kittens, ostensibly to bring the females back into heat so they can breed again. (Bears will do this). Is there any scientific evidence of male mountain lions killing their own, related kittens?
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over 2 years ago
Question How dangerous is a swarm of bees?
Sometimes, bees will split from a hive, and a bunch of them (including a new queen bee) will swarm, and move to build a new hive. As you can see, there is an awful lot of bees huddled together around the new queen, they aren't doing much, just clustered the tree branch. Exactly how dangerous is a...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How to calculate the energy of a slingshot projectile?
In order to do this, you need the weight of the projectile and its velocity. The way to measure the velocity is to use a modern gun chronograph, you shoot the projectile through the to screens and it will measure the velocity for you. Then you take the weight of the projectile and plug it into the e...
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over 2 years ago
Question How to calculate the energy of a slingshot projectile?
This answer made me wonder how a slingshot would compare in power to an airgun, especially as for that location, without a license you are limited to 12 ft-lbs of energy. For hunting with firearms, more energy means that you are more likely to get a clean kill, and a minimum level is often mandated b...
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over 2 years ago
Question How big do ducklings get before they can fly?
The ducklings are getting much bigger very quickly, to the point that it's almost hard to tell the mother duck from the ducklings, (mother duck in back of procession) How much bigger are these ducklings going to get before they start flying?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What sort of accuracy should I expect at 100 yards from slugs fired from a smoothbore shotgun?
No better than 3 MOA, probably more like 6 MOA, and they aren't very effective past 75 yards because they quickly loose velocity and start tumbling end over end. A smooth bore firearm is simply never going to demonstrate the same level of accuracy as a rifle and will never excel at distances muc...
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over 2 years ago
Question Is it realistic that a duck would raise a swan?
One of the older fairy tales is The Ugly Duckling where the one oddball of the bunch is considered ugly by the other ducks but turns out to be a swan at the end of the story. From what I have read, Canada geese can't tell the difference between real and dummy eggs (dummy eggs are used to control the...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How to store fresh dead bait shrimp for a short period of time?
I would just place them in a ziplock bag and freeze them until you go fishing again. It's worth point out that people going fishing with frozen bait, and I doubt it would smell. The single most widely available bait in Florida is the Frozen Shrimp. Many bait shops bag and freeze any shrimp tha...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: In shooting, what is a MOA (minute of angle)?
A minute of angle is a measure of an angle. It is 1/60th of a degree, 1/21600th of a circle. Often times you will see this in Scope increments, 1/8 of an MOA is more precise than 1/4. Scope vertical adjustment range The ticks on a mil-dot reticle scope are usually given in MOA. The size of the do...
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over 2 years ago
Question In shooting, what is a MOA (minute of angle)?
In hunting/shooting, you will often see the term MOA (which stands for minute of angle). What exactly is an (MOA) minute of angle when it comes to shooting?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What plants can be heard when they are growing?
It looks like the two species, that you can actually hear grow are corn and rhubarb, other plants also make sounds when they are growing, but in frequencies that humans can't hear. Today, the cornfields of Nebraska and elsewhere in the world actually make sounds of growing. ... This &#...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: When and why were House Sparrows originally brought to the United States?
It looks like the first sparrows where brought over in 1851, to control insects, and because they would have been familiar to people coming from Europe. When Europeans first arrived in the Americas, there were Native American cities, but none of the species Europeans had come to expect in cities:...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Treated wood for a trailer bunk for pontoon boat
The problem is that the chemicals in the treated wood are corrosive to metal, especially when wet. Beyond, the boat, it might not be so good for your trailer either. The two most popular chemicals for wood pressure treatment are alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) and copper azole (CA), which are bo...
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over 2 years ago
Question Why would a raccoon climb a building?
Yesterday, there was a raccoon climbing a 20 plus story building in Minnesota, today it made it to the top and was caught in a live trap for transport to back to the wild. It brings up the question, why would a raccoon climb a building in the first place?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Getting lost and circling a trail in a loop?
I believe this is called walking in circles :) What happens is that is that without a compass or GPS, you tend to head to one side instead of going straight. Eventually you will complete the circle and head back around the other way. If you have ever turned the tracking mode on a GPS and then left ...
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over 2 years ago
Question What is the difference between "shooting" and "safety" glasses?
The local shooting range requires eye protection, when I look on Amazon there are "shooting glasses" in the hunting section, and then there are "safety glasses" in other sections. From what I can tell, there isn't much of a difference between the two, they both protect from UV and are made from plas...
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over 2 years ago
Question What are the pros and cons of clear vs yellow tinted shooting glasses?
When shooting it is a good idea to wear eye protection, most ranges and shooting competitions require them. There are two basic kinds, clear plastic, and amber/yellow tinted ones. From what I have seen the UV protection is identical on both types. What are the pros and cons of each?
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How many days does it take to reach hiking X miles per day?
Its going to depend on the person and the terrain, from experience it takes about 5 days to week to really hit your stride, but that will depend per person and some people take much longer to really get going. The other thing you are missing here is that you will be able to go faster and further dur...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: What are the pros and cons of introducing new safety colors for hunting?
From everything I have read, its mostly about giving hunters who would prefer wearing pink to orange the choice to do so. Before taking a hunter safety class in October 2016, sisters Paige and Brooke Simonsen, from Easton, stocked up on pink hunting clothes. Then, they found out that Maryland law...
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over 2 years ago
Question Have there been any studies done on how fluorescent pink compares to fluorescent orange?
It's extremely common to mandate that rifle hunters in the United States wear fluorescent orange, some states are now changing the laws to also allow fluorescent pink. The article (April 3, 2018) I found on how Maryland changed their laws said, It&#x2019;s no joke, however, that Colorado, Louisi...
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over 2 years ago
Question Are elk and deer colorblind to blaze orange/pink clothes?
During rifle season, hunters are required to wear blaze orange (some states also allow bright pink). I have heard that deer and elk are color blind to blaze orange, is there scientific evidence to back this up?
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over 2 years ago
Question Are there any biodegrable freeze dried packages?
More and more I see discarded freeze dried packages abandoned in the woods. The ones I have seen are made out of plastic and are foil lined and so don't decompose the way that oatmeal packets would for example. I find this highly irritating both because of the litter and am wondering if there a more...
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over 2 years ago
Question Are there any statistics on how many mallard ducklings survive?
In addition to all of the ducklings currently around the area, one will also see mallard ducks without, (the mallards would run the duck with a red head off if they had ducklings). Lots of other animals such as foxes will eat ducklings, are there any statistics as to how many ducklings survive. T...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: How to keep socks from wicking rain off pants into boots
If you don't need the full rain pants, then gaitors should do the trick. I would wear the gaitors over the top of all of your other layers, and just wear them when you need to, as otherwise you will get wet from your own sweat. They are also useful if you have to go through vegetation after it has ra...
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over 2 years ago
Question Keeping the hose on a hydration bladder from unscrewing?
I have a hydration bladder with a screw on the drinking hose, and the problem is that given enough time it will come unscrewed and then leak inside my backpack. I have tried tightening it as hard as I dare, (everything is made of plastic) and it still eventually comes loose. I could live with a per...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Camelbak safe to use after cleaning for the first time in 4 years?
Honestly, you should be perfectly fine to use it. If there was no mold after storing it and before cleaned it out, I wouldn't worry about it. Camelbak's official cleaning instructions say it safe to use even if you had gotten mold inside of it after following their instructions (although it still ...
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over 2 years ago
Question How do mallard mother ducks tell their ducklings from others?
Right now the irrigation ditches and ponds have lots and lots of mallard ducklings, sometimes multiple families to a single pond. The way to tell is that there will be too many ducklings for one family in a pond, and they will sort of be grouped up. I have read that mother ducks will not tolerate ...
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over 2 years ago
Question How essential is the darkness/tint of a pair of sunglasses to protecting your eyes?
In addition to sunglasses, you can get clear safety glasses that claim "Blocks 99.9% of harmful UV rays". The advantage of clear safety glasses is that they can be worn both during dusk and after dark when there are millions of tiny bugs trying to fly into your eyes. It made me wonder how essential ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Contacting a yacht on IJsselmeer (Netherlands)
What you are probably looking for is a satellite two way messenger like an inReach or to rent a satellite phone. The two way messenger will allow you to send both text messages and coordinates, and the inReach at least can be set to send up a message with your position every so often, and then your ...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Were elk solely plains animals before the Europeans came?
TLDR: No, they were found all over North America before the Europeans arrived and are being reintroduced into the Appalachian mountains. I can see them preferring the plains instead of mountains in the absence of hunting pressure, but I haven't found any evidence that they were absent from the mounta...
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over 2 years ago
Answer A: Should I close a cathole (toilet-hole) at night?
The solution to this and especially when you have multiple people in a group and so want to limit the number of holes, is to use a single hand width trench instead individual catholes. You start by making one cathole that is wider than long, and as it is used, you fill in and the dig to one one side...
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over 2 years ago
Question How much of a difference in insulation will a reflective tarp make?
In addition to space blankets, you can get reusable tarps with a reflective coating on one side. For the most part, they are just like regular tarps with grommets for tie downs and are big enough to sleep under. Would the reflective coating make any difference in insulation as compared to sleeping u...
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over 2 years ago
Question Will bobcats climb cacti when not in fear of their lives?
There are pictures of bobcats climbing on top of really tall cacti, the one story I read says that the reason the bobcat climbed the tree was to get away from a mountian lion who was trying give it a hug eat it. Would a bobcat climb a cactus if it wasn't being chased by a predator?
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almost 3 years ago
Question What additional equipment is needed for bowfishing?
As it is the time of year when carp spawn and are in close to shore, I have been seeing people along the lakeshore with archery equipment, bow fishing for carp. If one were to already have a bow and arrows, what additional equipment would be needed to go bowfishing?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Are there any reliable plants to use for navigation?
I doubt there are specific plants, but in general, yes, plants can be indicators of direction. In the Northern Hemisphere, for example, snow will stay longer on the north facing slopes and pile up on the downwind sides of hills. This leads to more vegetation in general on the north slopes as there i...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Lake Erie / Presque Isle Water Level
According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration The water levels of the Great Lakes fluctuate at different time scales to different forces. Very short-term water level changes, viewable in the interactive charts above, are caused by wind and storms. These short-term (hours to day...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How long is the carp mating season at Presque Isle?
I doubt that there are specific dates, other than late spring to early summer. It also depends on the water temperature, and I am sure that fluctuates from year to year slightly. Carp spawn in late spring to early summer, over aquatic vegetation. They may choose a shallow, weedy bay. After rains ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How fast does a climbing rope recover its dynamic properties after a fall?
Black Diamond did a study on this, and even after 24 hours of resting, there was still a noticeably increased load on the second fall. Allowing the rope to rest 24 hours still resulted in a 2nd drop load of 11% greater than the first drop QC LAB: Do ropes need to rest between falls? They concl...
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almost 3 years ago
Question How much weight can a bald eagle carry?
Just recently, a photographer was watching some foxes hunt rabbits. One of the foxes caught a rabbit when a bald eagle swooped down grabbed the rabbit and pulled both rabbit and fox into the air. The fox let go and the eagle took the rabbit.. That brings up the question of how much weight can a bald...
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almost 3 years ago
Question Why would porcupines sleep on the ground during the day?
More than once, I have come across a porcupine in the woods sleeping on the ground during the daytime instead of in a tree. They keep their nose tucked down and their long hairs provide some degree of camouflage. You can tell they are sleeping because once they do wake up, they will scurry off ver...
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almost 3 years ago
Question Which animals would kill porcupines?
I found the remains a of a porcupine in the woods, with nothing left but quills and hair. As porcupines are pretty well protected by their quills, what types of animals would be capable of killing them?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How dangerous is it to rummage the ground in the mountains of Nevada desert with venomous creatures out there?
Last summer I did a yo-yo of both the Toyaibe Crest and the Ruby mountains while also summitting both Mt Wheeler and Boundary Peak. The mountains aren&#x2019;t particularly dangerous, other than the big summits I did there really wasn&#x2019;t any times where I was particularly concerned. Snakes ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Why does burning dung drive away insects?
For mosquitoes, it probably works the same way DEET does, mosquitoes have the ability to smell and they really don&#x2019;t like certain smells to the point that they will go away. However, more recent evidence shows that DEET serves as a true repellent in that mosquitoes intensely dislike the sm...
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almost 3 years ago
Question How to permanently label Nalgene bottles?
It's pretty common to use 1 oz Nalgene bottles to hold the spices in a spice kit for backpacking as they are waterproof and the right size. Image Source The problem comes when trying to label the bottles, as permanent markers or even cow id tag markers will rub off. Best solution I know of is to...
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almost 3 years ago
Question How much should I worry/care about the "Known to the State of California" warnings on fuel canisters?
A lot of outdoor gear has warnings like the following, WARNING: This product contains chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other reproductive harm. while sometimes it says may contain chemicals To keep this questions from being too broad, I am g...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Is pouring boiling water into a plastic Nalgene bad for you?
Most Nalgene bottles are designed to be able to stand up to boiling water. Today, many hikers and others recognize the distinctive appearance of Nalgene-branded bottles. Its laboratory pedigree is still suggested by the markings, in hundreds of millilitres, of the volume contained. The materials ...
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almost 3 years ago
Question Is there scientific evidence of bobcats breeding with house cats?
I have seen some barn cats that were claimed to be the offspring of female barn cats and a male bobcat (they had bobbed tails). Wikipedia says that there is circumstantial and anecdotal evidence for this, but the note says that the source for that information is unreliable, and the date on the sourc...
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almost 3 years ago
Question How to tell the difference between bobcats and house cats?
Recently there was a story about some people in Texas who brought three bobcat kittens home and then called animal control after the bobcats bit them. It's also happened once in California where a Maine Coon cat was mistaken for a bobcat, and once in Virginia with a Bengal cat. How would one tell t...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Why does red snow make a person sick?
Watermelon snow is caused by algae called Chlamydomonas nivalis. Apparently, it has laxative effects. As Giersch and National Park representatives explain, the red pigment in the algae helps to protect its chloroplast from the sun&#x2019;s radiation, allowing it to take in more heat. As the algae...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How to estimate the volume a person sweats?
You basically have it, the formula is Your Weight at start - Your Weight at end + Weight of water consumed - Weight of water urinated = Water lost via sweat Then you divide the water lost via sweat by the amount of time to find your sweat rate. Water lost via sweat/time spent exercising = swea...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Hot water system as a heater for car camping?
It&#x2019;s decently common to use a nalgene water bottle inside of a sleeping bag to help stay warm during the night. Before you go to bed you fill the water bottle with water warmed over a stove and place it inside the sleeping bag. It is certainly possible to use boiling water but then you will ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What is the expected flowrate of a bucket brigade?
From what we know of back when a bucket brigades were the fire fighting method of choice, Before the mid-1800s, the most common way of fighting fires in the nations cities and towns was the bucket brigade, made up of volunteers. When a fire was spotted, the cry of "throw out your buckets" would b...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How to deal with keeping a first aid kit inside a hot car?
The two main tricks for storing things in a car in hot temperatures are, Try to keep the car as cool as possible, Park in the shade. Use a reflective windshield shade to reflect some of the heat that would otherwise be absorbed and heat up the inside of the car. Keep the things inside of other t...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Can microspikes replace crampons when crossing ice in summer?
It depends, if the snow is pretty level and you don't need the front points on the crampons to get up things, then yes microspikes can be a good substitute as they are certainly lighter and don't require specialized boots. They will never be a full substitute for crampons, but they should fit your p...
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almost 3 years ago
Question How to protect sunglasses without a case?
I find abandoned sunglasses fairly frequently, right now the snow shoe and cross country trails are melting, and all of the sunglasses that were lost during the winter are now visible. I don't find them often enough to carry a sunglasses case just for this scenario, but would like to know how I can ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How do I safely move around Canada Geese?
It looks like geese attacks are far more common in the spring when they are defending their nests. Realistically, you just want to treat them like any other wild animals and give them enough space and just wait until the nesting season is over when they are far less aggressive. The guidelines for pr...
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almost 3 years ago
Question Do bull snakes keep rattlesnakes away?
I was reading Desert Solitare by Edward Abbey, and in it, he mentions that he was using bull snakes (bull snakes are non-venomous) during his time as a park ranger to help control the mouse population around his trailer and to keep rattlesnakes away. While I am certain that bull snakes would help ke...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Could a steam juicer be used to desalinate water?
Yes, it can as what you would do is use heat to turn the salt water to steam and then collect the steam and turn it back into liquid water. It works on the same principle as a regular distiller, and if you really wanted to you could get a purpose-built water distiller but a steam juicer will work as...
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almost 3 years ago
Question What features should I look for in a packraft?
Reading through are other packrafting questions it looks like it would be a neat activity, especially since there are quite a few beautiful alpine lakes that would be neat to float across and they would be far enough in that packrafts are probably the only option. We already have a question asking a...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What determines whether the young of a cat is called a kitten or a cub?
It depends on whether the cat is a member of the Panthera (cubs) or Felinae (kittens). This Panthera is the big cats, The British taxonomist Pocock revised the classification of this genus in 1916 as comprising the species lion, tiger, jaguar, and leopard on the basis of cranial features. Resul...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How to keep paper from being damaged by water in the outdoors?
The solution to this problem is waterproof paper. You can get it in notebooks, journals, legal sized for printing maps or documents etc. I have also seen at least one organization that had their instructor manuals printed on it. Some waterproof paper can be used with pencils, regular pens, and water...
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almost 3 years ago
Question How to keep paper from being damaged by water in the outdoors?
Sometimes people will keep notes or things they see in the outdoors or keep a journal and paper getting wet and then wrecked is a big problem. The other obvious use is printing maps off from the internet like the free USGS topo maps. Is there a way to keep one's notes or journal or printed maps f...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How to estimate the size and or gender of a mountain lion from its tracks?
There are two things that can help one estimate the size, Size of the individual tracks themselves. The stride length (distance between tracks on the same size) The size of the tracks will stay the same no matter how an animal is moving, however, when an animal runs, the stride length will increa...
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almost 3 years ago
Question How to estimate the size and or gender of a mountain lion from its tracks?
If one were to come across mountain lion tracks, how would one estimate the size of the lion making the tracks? Also, is it possible to tell the gender of the mountain lion(s)?
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almost 3 years ago
Question How did/does shrinking canvas effect sailing ships?
When canvas gets wet and then dries, it shrinks. Sails get wet from rain and from spray, and it was even done on purpose to increase the speed of sailing ships. For canvas tents, this has to be taken into account when building the frame as otherwise, you can end up with a tent that is too small for ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How are canvas tents made to be fire retardant?
They are treated with chemicals to be fire retardent. Fire retardant canvas tarps are treated with substances that lessen flammability. They are not exactly resistant to flames. When fire comes in contact with these tarps, they can delay or stop its spread. Fire retardant canvas tarps are nature ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What does moose scat/poop look like?
The biggest distinguishers of moose scat from elk and deer are size and color. Moose scat is significantly bigger than either deer or elk scat around the size of a very large grape and usually reddish brown instead of black like deer or elk. Notice both the size in comparison to the boot tracks and...
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almost 3 years ago
Question What does moose scat/poop look like?
What does moose scat/poop look like and how can one distinguish it from the other similar scats namely deer and elk?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What do Tyrannosaur dinosaur tracks look like?
First off, the tyrannosaurus dinosaurs are in the suborder Theropoda, and were bipedal, which is a fancy way of saying that they walked on two feet. They had three toes and one dewclaw. The ones found in British Columbia were over 2 feet long and over 5 feet between tracks. Finally, these tracks a...
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almost 3 years ago
Question What do Tyrannosaur dinosaur tracks look like?
One of the genera of dinosaurs is the Tyrannosaurus, which includes the famous T-Rex. What do the tracks of this type of dinosaur look like?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Where do I attach a bobber?
A bobber will hold the string a certain distance below the surface of the water. Putting the bobber onto the string 5 feet from the end will result in the hook with the bait being just 5 feet below the surface of the water. How far you want up the string them depends on the type of fish and the body...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Can removing dead wood harm the ecosystem?
The answer seems to be that it depends, Birds, small mammals, and other wildlife use snags for nests, nurseries, storage areas, foraging, roosting, and perching. Live trees with snag-like features, such as hollow trunks, excavated cavities, and dead branches can provide similar wildlife value. Sn...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What animals have paw prints similar to a mountain lion such that the absence or presence of claw marks are the most reliable distinguishing feature?
The answer is members of the dog family of animals as they are the other type of animals with paws that a similar in size wolves coyotes (have to be a really big coyote or very small mountain lion) domestic dogs (the bigger varieties i.e not Chihuahuas) A full grown mountain lion will leave bigge...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How to find and identify mountain lion tracks?
The easiest time to find them is just after a fresh snowfall. Optimum conditions are enough snow for the tracks to be clearly visible without preventing one from driving back roads. The way people and especially hunters will find tracks is to drive the back roads in the morning just after a fresh sn...
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almost 3 years ago
Question How to find and identify mountain lion tracks?
Mountain lions are rarely seen by humans, but their tracks can be much easier to find. How would one find and identify mountain lion tracks?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What's the proper way to establish a triaxial connection with carabiners?
If you want one point and multiple things to connect to it, then what you do is create a master point with rope or cordellete and attach your carabiners to it. Usually the master point is a a overhand knot on a bight and the carabiners attach to the loop. That looks like this, Image Source In ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Is it actually useful to ration food?
The simple answer is that yes it does make sense to ration, see the stories of the men who survived the Essex or the Mutiny on the Bounty or the Chilean Miners or many countries during wartime. From a mathematic point of view, one rations when does not have enough food for the timeframe between now ...
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almost 3 years ago
Question Are there resources for identifying dinosaur tracks?
There are plenty of bird identification app or books or websites, is there anything similar for dinosaur tracks? I get that identifying dinosaur tracks is hard, if I remember correctly there are only three known sets of T-Rex tracks in the world, and it looks like many tracks are unidentified. Stil...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What is the difference between a dinosaur true track and a natural cast?
The easy way to think of this is that tracks left in concrete sidewalks are true tracks while pouring plaster of paris into animals tracks left in mud would results in a cast. Sometimes the dinosaur tracks were made in materials that turned to stone and were then preserved as true tracks, and someti...
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almost 3 years ago
Question What is the difference between a dinosaur true track and a natural cast?
Of the dinosaur tracks that people find in the outdoors, there are two main types, true tracks and natural casts (there are also undertracks and infills but these are harder to see). What exactly is the difference between these two types of dinosaur tracks?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How to instruct someone how to take off a climbing harness?
Been there, done that, it's far more worrisome when you have to show them how to put the harness on and then have them test that it's tight enough. And like you said, you really don't want to touch them. The simple solutions is to show them how you take your harness off, and have them mirror your ac...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Are there gender-specific climbing harnesses?
Yes, men and womens climbing harnesses are different. A number of styles are specifically designed for a women&#x2019;s physique, with unique fit and comfort characteristics built in. Be aware that a men&#x2019;s version of a harness will not fit the same as a women&#x2019;s version. Women&#x2013...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How to use DEET bug sprays if I have dogs?
I would spray the DEET on your clothes in places where the dogs won't lick, such as the top of a hat. I would also suggest trying to avoid using DEET by wearing long pants and sleeves to avoid the number of mosquitos trying to bite you. It also worth pointing out that since this is a known problem, ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Telescopic surf fishing rods - Are less segments better?
Like most things its a tradeoff. More segments, Smaller collapsible size, More eyelets to run the string through Can be more expensive. Fewer segments, Fewer parts to break Fewer weak joints I know for sure that more segments in a fly fishing rod make for a better one.
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Do birds eat chillies? Do they feel the chilli heat?
TLDR: Yes they eat them, No they don't feel the heat. The tiny Bird&#x2019;s Eye Chili originated in Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, The Philippines, and surrounding countries, but they can now be found all over the world. They are presumably called Bird&#x2019;s Eye Chili because of their small rou...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How should you find out about local shooting ranges in a new area?
Often times it makes sense to ask the locals by asking at gun shops or outdoor gear shops like for example Sportsman's Warehouse or Cabela's. The other good resource would be the managers of public land in the area, sometimes the BLM or Forest service will have designated areas and sometimes areas ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How to use a static rope as a tether at the anchor of a top rope climb?
Here is what I have done in the past and have demonstrated for others. Attach yourself to the tether with a Gri-Gri and tie backup knots beneath you to prevent a catastrophic failure of the Gri-Gri losing its grip and you sliding all the way down the rope. Its unlikely that the Gri-Gri would fail, b...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How can I view a route from a .kml file overlayed on an Ordnance Survey map?
I believe that what you are looking for is, Gavin Brock's Ordnance Survey Map KML Overlays for the UK Same one found here. The Charles Close Society for the Study of Ordnance Survey Maps Any of these should put an Ordnace Survey overlay into Google Earth and then you could combine that with the ....
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Resources for finding public hunting land
Probably the best, but not the cheapest solution is to get a GPS with a hunting map overlay. These will show all sorts of things like, Hunting area boundaries Public lands Private land open to hunting (Walk-in areas) Who owns what private land. This can be useful is you have permission from one lan...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Can skunk spray be fatal to geese or other animals?
TLDR: It has happened once to a dog and it is possible that it could happen to birds but I can find no instances of it happening. In rare cases, skunk spray can have more effects than just smell on a dog. In rare instances, Heinz body anemia, methemoglobinemia, and hemoglobinuria may occur a few...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What is a back bearing when navigating with map and compass?
Sometimes landmarks that you are travelling from, are much easier to take bearings to than what you are travelling towards. For example, in southern Utah near Bryce Canyon, there is a cinder cone that rises several hundred vertical feet above a relatively flat forest. Taking a bearing to the cinder ...
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almost 3 years ago
Question What is a back bearing when navigating with map and compass?
Sometimes when navigating with map and compass one will take a back bearing, i.e. a bearing taken directly opposite to the direction one is travelling? When and why would one want to do this?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How can I get a GPS location for this tree on a distant hillside?
There are a number of different ways to do this. Method using GPS, compass and Google Earth. Get the GPS coordinates of where you can see the tree from. Take a bearing with a compass to the tree from that location and write it down. Move to another location a decent distance away from the first wh...
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almost 3 years ago
Question Why are vultures attracted to rubber on vehicles?
I was looking up some things for some of our recent questions when I saw this line in the safety guide for Everglades National Park, Vultures are attracted to the rubber on vehicles and have been know to cause severe damage to windshields, sun roofs, and windshield wipers. Here is an example ca...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Effective breathing techniques for high inclination, tougher hikes
Paul Petzold, the founder of NOLS (National Outdoor Leadership School) was a big proponent of rhythmic breathing. The idea is that it helps one conserve energy and better utilize the air at higher altitudes. He described it as, in which the rate of breathing controls the speed of movement rathe...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Are rolling snow pieces a sign of increased avalanche danger?
Yes, rolling snow when the temperatures warm can be a sign of an impending wet avalanche. Rolling balls, and point releases all indicate wet unstable snow. It is worth noting that direct sunlight leads to a rapid temperature increase especially on southerly and westerly slopes even when the air (...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What is the risk of getting lost while canoeing in a cypress swamp?
I would say that the risks would be fairly significant, due to how things are going to be fairly flat and the banks wills have lots of vegetation, both of which will limit the amount of distance you can see. Also, in any areas like that, things will start to look the same after a while. The tricks I...
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almost 3 years ago
Question How dangerous are alligators to people canoeing?
Inspired by this question, how dangerous are alligators to people out canoeing in say the Everglades in Florida? I am sure there is some danger because from time time you here about people winning Darwin awards by going swimming with alligators What precautions should one take if canoeing in places...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Alligator free Mangrove or Cypress swamps in the US?
Mangroves no, because if you compare this map of the distribution of mangroves to this map of the distribution of alligators in the United States, Image Source there aren't any places with mangroves that don't also have alligators. On the other hand, there are places on this map of cypress swam...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Is there a benefit for animals who return to the area of a deadly forest fire after the fire is out?
According to United States Forest Service, fire has a number of benefits for the wildlife including more nutrients in the ground, more open spaces, there are some plants that need fire to spread and it helps control invasive species. Fire offers many benefits to wildlife and plant species. First ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: When backpacking, what gear should go in the brain(top most compartment) instead of the main compartment?
The basic rule of thumb is that your small, often accessed items should go into the brain of the backpack. Things like, Water purification (iodine, tablets etc.) Map Compass/GPS Small camera Phone Small notebook Pencil Sunscreen The idea is that if something goes into the main compartment it is ...
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almost 3 years ago
Question When backpacking, what gear should go in the brain(top most compartment) instead of the main compartment?
Most backpacking backpacks have both a big main compartment and a "brain" which goes over the top of the main compartment. Image source When packing, which gear should go into the brain?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Is there a reason for seeing a lot of roadkill badgers in the spring?
Its a combination of the male badgers out looking for mates, Springtime is the most perilous time for wild animals, says Whelan. &#x201C;A lot of male badgers are killed in spring because they&#x2019;re out looking for females.&#x201D; It is more of a problem if a female is killed: &#x201C;If aro...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Higher weight carrying using forehead?
Yes, tumplines do have advantages over a regular backpack, and that includes being able to carry more weight. African women have been found to carry loads of up to 60 percent of their body weight on their heads more economically than army recruits with a backpack of an equivalent weight. Nepalese...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Should one buy a higher shoe size while buying hiking shoes?
It can depend on the person but it is something that is suggested fairly often,, Many people prefer hiking boots that are a half or full size larger than their normal shoe size. This helps accommodate thicker hiking socks without discomfort. If possible, try on your boots with the socks you'll be...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Possible resources to identify birds while outdoors (preferably in the Indian subcontinent)?
There several apps for phones that would help a person, eBird by Cornell Lab (This one is supposed to be worldwide) Birds of India Specifically for birds in India The Audubon Bird Guide App (Limited to North America) Merlin Bird ID App (North America and Europe, will also help identify the bird fro...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Should one deliberately eat more and put on weight before going on long treks?
It depends on the circumstances, in fact people going for Mt. Everest will deliberately gain weight beforehand to offset the coming loss. Gain weight: It's advisable to gain an extra stone in weight, as you can expect to lose up to 20 per cent of body weight on Everest. Source Also see one, tw...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What is the best way to figure out the size/volume of an old pack?
You need to fill the backpack with something and and then measure the volume of that filler. It would probably be easiest to to stuff the backpack full with t-shirts until you can't fit anymore, then take them out and stuff them into a shoe box which is a nice cubic shape. Then you multiply the heig...
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almost 3 years ago
Question What is the rather large bug with a green body, black stripe down the middle, 8 orange legs , two large antenna and large chompers?
I find this bug while hiking the Toiyabe Crest Trail in Nevada. It was probably 2 inches long and at an elevation of somewhere around 6,000 feet or so. I did decided that I didn't want to camp anywhere close to the thing. Does anyone know what kind of bug this is?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What is this raised, icy-looking structure, found at the edge of a partially frozen lake?
Its just the result of pressure on the ice pushing the slabs up like that. It could also have been a solid non melting object underneath like a rock, but I can't see one in the picture. Ice will do all sorts weird things under pressure like pressure ridges or ice shove/heaves or spring tectonic cr...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What does status R mean regarding trail permits on the Mt Whitney lottery calendar?
Yes, it means that you are out of luck for that day. After the Mt Whitney Lottery, any remaining dates may be reserved on the website www.recreation.gov beginning at 10:00am Eastern Time on April 1st. When searching for an available date, the letter "R" on the reservation calendar indicates that...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How to avoid trespassing in the United States?
This has been a problem for quite a while, it used to be that one needed really good paper maps to be able to tell. Now there are chips for GPS units that show the ownership of the land on the map (there are also apps for phones) with an overlay of the property types and boundaries. That way people ...
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almost 3 years ago
Question How to avoid trespassing in the United States?
Sometimes in the United States private land won't be marked clearly or there won't fences along the lines or maybe there aren't any "no trespassing" signs. Especially in the western parts with big open spaces this can be a problem. Or sometimes the land can be public, but the rules can be different ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Install a stove jack onto a canvas tent without one
The problem with using a a stove inside a tent that is not designed for one, is that it will lack the fire retardation treatment on the canvas, and therefore be more liable to catch on fire. A: These tents are not fire retardant and should you choose to install a stove Jack somebody could be seri...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Does the two sticks and a star method of finding north work the same way in both hemispheres?
TLDR: It's the same in both hemispheres. To keep the explanation simple consider someone driving south at night across the equator in Africa . The person sees a star ahead and it's moving to the right. As the person crosses the equator it will still be moving to the right, not suddenly stop and star...
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almost 3 years ago
Question Does the two sticks and a star method of finding north work the same way in both hemispheres?
There is a method of finding north by aiming two sticks at a star and then tracking the star's movement to find which way is north. You can read the full description here. However, there is the a debate in the comments (with 6 upvotes) about whether or not it works the exact same way in both hemisph...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Tips for using a "wag bag" to pack out human waste
For making the bags, here is what I have done in the past when I worked for an outdoor organization. You need a sheet of wax paper, a brown paper lunch bag, a zip lock and baking soda. When putting the bags together you, Put a scoop of backing soda inside the lunch bag Fold up the wax paper and pl...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How to tie a super eight / double figure eight / bunny ear knot?
This one is almost identical to the figure eight on a bight, with one crucial difference. When you get to the final step of the figure eight on a bight, instead of pushing the end of the bight through the loop you take another bight of the bight and push that through the loop, then flip the end of t...
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almost 3 years ago
Question How to tie a super eight / double figure eight / bunny ear knot?
Note, I am not asking how to tie three different types of knots, but rather one knot that goes by three different names. Its a knot that can be useful in building anchors especially at the top of fixed lines. How one would tie this knot?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How to tie a figure eight on a bight?
First you take the bight and bring the end down. Then you take the end and cross it over. Then bring it back around underneath the main strand. Finally take the end through the top loop. and there you have it. Before using you would want to dress it and tighten it down. If you want to se...
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almost 3 years ago
Question How to tie a figure eight on a bight?
One of the more common knots in climbing is the figure eight on a bight (being tied on a bight means that it is tied without using the ends. How exactly would one tie this knot?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How can I clean my newly acquired (used) climbing shoes in order to avoid athlete's foot?
I would just spray them with Lysol disinfectant spray. That should take the care of both the smell and kill the fungus. This is the quick and simple solution. You are right that most people don't climb with socks mostly for better control, unless they are using rental shoes, in which case they use s...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Is it warmer to sleep in a car or in a tent?
The car, mostly because you can use the heater. You will want to make sure that the exhaust is clear to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning and only run it for a short periods at a time. This also helps keep the engine warm, as it is much harder to start an engine when it is really cold out. If the the ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What are the white pvc pipes in the Nevada desert for?
These are mining claim markers that mark the edges of the claim. The ones in the picture are legal, because the tops are capped. If the tops were not capped, it would be legal to pull them out and set them on the ground. 8.&#x2002;&#x2002;After November 1, 2011, any durable plastic pipe that is n...
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almost 3 years ago
Question What are the white pvc pipes in the Nevada desert for?
Sometimes in my travels in Nevada, I would come across white pvc pipes standing up in the middle of nowhere sticking out like sore thumbs. They looked like this (the red arrow points to another one further up the hill) What exactly are these posts marking?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Crossing small corners of a glacier when hiking in summer
I would say that it is going to depend on how steep the glacier is. If it is pretty flat, then you won't need the ice axe and crevasses are highly unlikely. This wouldn't be any harder than walking on a snowfield. If on the other hand the glacier is steep and parts of the glacier are moving at diffe...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What is the relationship between altitude gain and temperature decrease when mountaineering?
The answer is that it depends on the moisture held in the air moist air changes at a rate of 3&deg; Fahrenheit per 1000 ft of vertical / 0.6&deg; Celsius per 100m. dry air changes at a rate of 5.4&deg; Fahrenheit per 1000 ft of vertical / 1&deg; Celsius per 100m. As moist air rises, it cools ...
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almost 3 years ago
Question What is the relationship between altitude gain and temperature decrease when mountaineering?
In the absence of inversions, going up mountains will bring you into lower temperatures as you get higher. What is the rule of thumb for how the temperature decreases with altitude?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What skills should one learn before attempting paragliding?
The first steps before flying start with learning the gear and going over the procedures (Source). Then you start what is known as kiting or ground handling where the you get the wing up into the air and use the controls to steer it and learn how to handle it while staying on the ground. True m...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Is there a way to attract more birds to my yard without a bird feeder?
For what you could do to attract birds without a feeder, I would suggest a birdbath, and we have a few questions on them already. Yes, the concern of it being spread by rodents is valid. Density of infected nymphs&#x2014;the principal determinant of Lyme disease risk&#x2014;varied significantly ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Titanic survival, ice cold water?
The US Coast Guard has done a number of studies too try and predict this and it looks like survival times can are highly dependent on the person and what they are wearing when all of the other factors are the same. ST was reduced to 5.3 hours if the body fat level of the victim changed to &#x20...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Are there bubble free handheld compasses?
The answer is yes, there are bubble free compasses. It seems that the trick to getting a compass to not have bubbles is to use a thermo-elastic capsule which flexes with the temperature changes. K&amp;R's thermo-elastic capsule is flexible, not brittle. This accomplishes two things: 1) the capsul...
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almost 3 years ago
Question Are there bubble free handheld compasses?
We have one question asking where it is normal for a compass to have bubbles and another asking why compasses get bubbles, but we do not have a question clearly asking if handheld compasses exist that do not get bubbles. So are there handheld compasses that do not get bubbles?
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Why do compasses develop bubbles?
Either small leaks or changes in atmospheric pressure. However if the bubble is less than 1/4 inch across it won't affect accuracy. Bubbles can form from high elevation or exposure to cold temperatures, which cause the liquid to contract, leaving an air bubble behind. Usually, the bubble will dis...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: How do squirrels find buried nuts?
It looks like its a combination of smell and memory. Abstract. It has previously been assumed that grey squirrels, Sciurus cqrolinensis, cannot remember the locations of nuts they have buried, and hence must relocate nuts by their odour. This assumption was tested by measuring the accuracy of ca...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Are pounds of propane actual pounds of weight?
Yes, propane in pounds is measured in weight. Answer: Propane can be measured in a few manners. The most common way is by gallons. It can also be measured by pounds (one gallon = 4.2lbs). When measured in gallons, a meter at the pump is used to determine the amount of propane that has been filled...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What is an effective technique for plogging?
The most efficient way to run and pick up trash would probably be to know where the garbage cans along the route are so you can carry the trash for as little time as possible. At least according to this Fitness.SE answer , its not a good idea to run with hand weights, since there is little physical ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Dialing an emergency number in a foreign country using a satellite phone
Here is what I found for most countries, If you have an Inmarsat satellite phone: You will need to obtain the full international access code, country code, and phone number for the local fire, police, or ambulance depending upon the nature of the emergency and store it in your contacts. ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Is it feasible that a black bear could kill a man with a single swat?
I am going to say yes, it is possible mostly because humans kill other humans with a single punch from time to time and black bears are certainly stronger. Cupido said there are &#x201C;hundreds&#x201D; of documented one-punch deaths nationwide. Source One-punch deaths fall even further do...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What are the steps you would go through to teach someone how to split logs?
For teaching someone, I would probably demonstrate it once and then let them go at it while watching to make sure they don't hurt themselves. It's not all that hard and smaller logs are easier. The precautions are, Wear safety glasses to protect against the chips or other flying debris. Wear glo...
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almost 3 years ago
Question When a sailing ship is pursuing another upwind, why does the distance gained to windward matter so much?
In one of the Hornblower books, "We're weathering on her" said Hornblower; his eye was aching with staring through the glass, and his arms even were weary with holding the telescope to his eye, but in the excitement of the chase he could not relax. "Not as much as I'd like" growled Bolton. ...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: Do Eastern grey squirrels pretend to bury nuts in the ground?
It looks like the answer is yes, they do pretend to bury their food to keep other squirrels from getting at it. Dr Michael Steele of Wilkes University in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, and colleagues, whose research is highlighted in this week's New Scientist magazine, observed eastern grey squirrel...
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almost 3 years ago
Question Is there a point at which one is committed to a tack?
In the same Hornblower story that inspired this question, Hornblower tricks the French captain by acting as if to tack, but stopping and swinging back. When the French try to do the same they are unable to do so. 'He's coming about, sir!' reported Prowse. 'He's casting off the braces!' He mu...
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almost 3 years ago
Answer A: What ever happened to the proposals for no-rescue zones for backpackers?
It looks like it was most commonly proposed in the 1980s to around 1994 and has since been brought up at different times by different people but was never implemented. Here are the results I found and the dates, and I only quoted the ones that don't require typing out the passages by hand. 1983 19...
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about 3 years ago
Question How do you determine the optimum time to tack?
In one of the Hornblower novels, he is being pursued by a French frigate on the first day of war. During the chase, both the British and French ships are sailing upwind, and it is mentioned that the theoretically correct moment to tack is passing. Once settled on the new tack the Loire&#x2019;s...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What material is a good alternative to neoprene?
I would say that it would depend more on the air temperature. If you have cold water and rather warm temperatures, such as rafting on a cold river on a hot summer day, then synthetics like polyester or polypropylene would be the way to go since they will dry out quickly and not retain the water. Th...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: At what wind speed is hiking considered unsafe
By the Beaufort scale if would be over level 8, Level 7: 50-61 km/h, 32&#x2013;38 mph: Inconvenience felt when walking against the wind. Level 8: 62-74 km/h, 39&#x2013;46 mph: Twigs break off trees; generally impedes progress Source Or from the National Weather service levels, A Wind Advisor...
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about 3 years ago
Question What kind salamander is this black and grey one I found at around 11,000 feet near Mt Ritter in the Sierras?
I was making the last of my approach to Mt Ritter when I saw this salamander. It was probably 3-4 inches long and around 4:30 in the morning, I think the forecasted temperature was around 40&deg; Fahrenheit. Would anyone know what kind of salamander this is?
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: When did semiautomatic hunting rifles become commonly used in the United States?
The first mention I can find of a semi-auto rifle produced in the United States for hunting was the Remington Model 8. The Remington Model 8 rifle was the first commercially successful semiautomatic rifle offered for civilian sale in the United States ... The primary market for the Mode...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Can you use an Iridium phone with a SIM but with no active plan to place an emergency call?
I looked at some different plans and it looks like you could buy a prepaid plan and not activate it for up to 2 years. See the pricing here. However that seems like the really expensive option. Since you only want something for use in emergencys and want to be able to communicate with rescuers whi...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: In orienteering/navigation, what is an attack point?
To put it really simply, an attack point is something that you can aim towards, that is far more obvious and easy to navigate to than your actual destination. For examples consider navigating to a lava tube cave in a forest with bluffs around. While the cave won't be visible until you are really clo...
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about 3 years ago
Question In orienteering/navigation, what is an attack point?
Some features in orienteering or navigation are called attack points. What exactly does this refer to?
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Is freezer bag cooking safe?
TLDR: It looks like the bigger risk is spilling the boiling water onto yourself. Here is what Ziplok has to say about their products, That&#x2019;s good news all around.Ziploc&#xAE; brand containers are made from polypropylene and can be recycled in a limited (but growing number) of communities....
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What can I do if I have 24-hour warning of very strong wind gusts (45&#x2013;50 m/s), but I cannot reach a fixed shelter within this period?
What you are probably going to want to do is to build your own shelter out of rocks. Basically, you are going to want to pile them up into a wall a couple of feet high and get down behind that. If you know the direction the wind is coming from then you can make a horseshoe shaped shelter with the ope...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What are the steps in the PBUS method of belaying?
P for Pull One hand holds the rope above belay device and the other below. During this step the hand above pulls down while at the same time the lower hand pulls the rope through the belay device. B for Brake During the above step, it is not always possible to keep the lower hand behind the b...
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about 3 years ago
Question What are the steps in the PBUS method of belaying?
The more common way of belaying is called PBUS which stands for Pull, Under, Brake, Slide. What is the correct way to do this (including illustrations)?
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: How to make rock climbing more challenging without changing to a more difficult route?
Some of the ways to make a rock climb more difficult include, No hands touching the rock. Climbing blindfolded. Two climbers climbing as in a three legged race. Avoiding certain holds. Climbing really slowly. Climbing really fast. Different colored holds for different difficulties Added weight for ...
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about 3 years ago
Question How to make rock climbing more challenging without changing to a more difficult route?
Sometimes when setting up rock climbs for people you will have climbers of various abilities and yet not have enough resources to set up enough climbs so that everyone has something that is hard enough to keep the interested. In a case like this, are there any ways to make a rock climb harder for th...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Do self-inflating sleeping pads have to be kept dry during trips?
Not exactly, if your sleeping pad gets wet and you lay your sleeping bag on top of it then your sleeping bag will get wet and that's not a good thing. Otherwise, your sleeping pad is preventing air from getting out, and that means its capable of keeping water out. On the other hand blowing into it ...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Why did wetting down canvas sails increase the speed of a sailing ship?
Wetting the sails down helps hold more wind by closing the gaps and making the sails stand flatter. Now the sails had to be kept wet, for a wet sail holds more of the wind than a dry one. Water had to be hoisted up from the sea to the towering height of Constitution's yards and spilled down the s...
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about 3 years ago
Question Why did wetting down canvas sails increase the speed of a sailing ship?
In some of the Horatio Hornblower novels, when they want to get the last bit of speed out of a sailing ship, the crew will wet the sails down in order to go faster. For a real example consider, The men were constantly employed in wetting the sails and as the wind filled them and the speed of the...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What is the minimum amount of water per day to survive?
Rationing water is not a good idea, If activity is reduced, healthy people can survive on half their usual food intake for an extended period and without any food for many days. Food, unlike water, may be rationed safely, except for children and pregnant women. ... If supplies run low...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What is the difference between single action (SA), double action/single action (DA/SA) and double action only(DAO) semi-auto pistols
Starting with simple and moving to more complex. Single Action (SA) A single action will only drop the hammer, it will not cock it back. If a round is chambered and then the hammer lowered, it must be manually cocked before it can fire. A good example of a single action is the M1911 pistol. Double...
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about 3 years ago
Question What is the difference between single action (SA), double action/single action (DA/SA) and double action only(DAO) semi-auto pistols
Somewhat like revolvers, semi-automatic pistols also come in single action, double action/single action and double action only. Also while there are similarities to how this terminology is used with revolvers, there are also differences. What exactly are the differences between these types of actio...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Is a sentinel (guard) Canada Goose always a male, or a female, or does it vary?
When geese are feeding it is not specified as far as I can tell, but during nesting it is the male who does the guarding. Wary - Alert for danger. Often while the flock is feeding, individuals will take turns acting as sentinels (neck erect), warning others of impending danger (Bent 1925). Sou...
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about 3 years ago
Question Are statistics about the frequency of crime actually useful in determining how safe a trail is?
We have a question here about how common assaults/crime happen to people hiking the Appalachian Trail which I have answered with basically all of the statistics I could find. However it doesn't seem to me that one can judge the safety of something by the numbers when the risk is going to vary consid...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Frequency of crime/assault on the Appalachian Trail
Note: I don't know that its possible to answer this without mentioning the things that have happened, some of which were pretty horrible. Not everyone may want to read this. TLDR: People will be a horrible out of civilization as in it, and the rarity is matched by the severity and barbarity of the i...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Climbing before 1950: photography book/database
I found a site that has a number of old climbing photographs from around that time and I think is your best option (that I could find). Historical Rock Climbing Images 1890s - 1930s There is also the Yorkshire Ramblers Journal which goes back all the way to 1899 and some of the articles have pictur...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: How many hours a day, on average, do Canada Geese sleep?
It looks like they spend very little time during the day sleeping, Aleutian Canada geese in the northern, Arcata study area in 2002 spent 87.0% of the daylight hours actively foraging (SE = 0.01, n = 700 scans) and 12.7% being vigilant (SE = 0.01, n = 700 scans), leaving little time for other a...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What is the difference between single and double action revolvers?
TDLR : Single actions only fire the revolver, double actions both cock the hammer and fire. The way that revolvers work is that each time it is fired, the cylinder must be rotated and the hammer cocked so that it can be dropped onto the primer to fire the bullet. To do this with a single action rev...
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about 3 years ago
Question What is the difference between single and double action revolvers?
Some revolvers are single action and some are double action, what exactly is the difference between the two types?
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Is "Short roping" "Death Roping"?
I am pretty certain that I have already answered why this is dangerous here. As for when it would be a valid technique, If the terrain is such that there is a slight risk of falling, but not enough to justify putting in intermediate placements. When balancing the need for speed with the risk of f...
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about 3 years ago
Question Is it poor etiquette to ask fellow backpackers where they have been/where they are going?
I got a comment here that said, Please omit the "Where have you been?" part of your social interaction. That is going to set me more on edge, not put me at ease. It sounds "stalker-ish", which is especially bad in OP's case where you look ragged. and before that Strongbad had suggested changing...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: How many tea light candles are needed to equal the heat output of a person?
TLDR: Two candles to a person but you really shouldn't have an open flame inside a tent. BTU of a person, Based on a 2,000-calorie diet, the human body generates about 330 BTUs per hour of heat. ... This number fluctuates depending on the conscious state of the person. For example, a h...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What are "minimalist shoes"?
There was actually a project done on the definition of what a minimalist shoe is and the result was "Footwear providing minimal interference with the natural movement of the foot due to its high flexibility, low heel to toe drop, weight and stack height, and the absence of motion control and stab...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: How do I make people not be afraid of me and my dogs?
Couple suggestions for meeting people on the trail with dogs, Keep the dogs leashed. When passing people put the dogs on the opposite side of yourself so that you are between the dogs and the people. Pull off to the side and have the dogs sit, as this demonstrates that you have control over the dog...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: How are minimum legal calibers for hunting decided?
I don't have great answers, but I thought that I would post what I have found so far. Sorry for my delay on your question and I don&#x2019;t have a very good answer. It was determined by the commission with probably some input from FWP staff. It would of went out for public comment and then the...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Do black, brown/grizzly or polar bears ever prey on humans?
TLDR: While rare, it definitely happens. In fact the majority of people killed by black bears in North America were killed by aggressive bears not by say surprised bears or mothers defending their cubs. The study found that 63 people were killed in 59 incidents in Canada, Alaska and the lower 4...
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about 3 years ago
Question Do black, brown/grizzly or polar bears ever prey on humans?
Do bears, as opposed to defending cubs, being startled by humans, or trying to get into food, ever decide to prey on humans? As in stalk, kill and then eat them?
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Under what conditions can a guide be highly confident of protecting clients against brown bears without using firearms?
There are a number of circumstances where bear spray is at a disadvantage to firearms including environmental factors like wind, rain and cold temperatures. Know the product! Winds, rain, snow, freezing temperatures and age of the product all play a role in the effectiveness of bear spray. If it...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What can I feed my dogs on a week-long hike?
There are a number of things you can do. Use some puppy kibble with the adult dog food Cut your dog food with about 25% puppy food during hiking trips. Puppy food had added calories and protein which will help boost your dogs nutritional intake during big mile days. Source There is freeze dri...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What is the life expectancy of an avalanche airbag backpack?
TLDR: Its going to depend on how it is used, but a maximum of ten years. Periodic Deployment/Service Life BCA recommends deploying your Float airbag at least once per year, both to make sure the system is operating correctly and to be sure the user knows how to operate the equipment effici...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: From the perspective of someone engaging in an outdoor sport, is there any fur that confers an advantage over all synthetic materials?
TLDR: If you're in extreme Arctic conditions fur does have an advantage. There is this study on the Inuit's Fur Parkas ABSTRACT: The traditional clothing system developed and used by the Inuit is the most effective cold weather clothing developed to date. One of the key elements used by the Inui...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Shooting into tree
Tree can die of lead poisoning from bullets, On the morning of July 3, Confederate forces launched the second of two attacks on Union troops occupying Culp's Hill. The Rebels, though, were ultimately repelled - after seven hours of fighting - largely due to an artillery bombardment from Union for...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What is a top strap on a revolver?
The top strap on a revolver is the part that goes over the top of the cylinder as you can see on this picture of an 1858 Remington. Image Source For comparison, here is a picture of a 1851 Navy Colt which doesn't have a top strap. Image Source Finally, here is what an assembled 1858 Remington...
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about 3 years ago
Question What is a top strap on a revolver?
Some revolvers like the earliest Colts do not have top straps, and that is the easy way of telling them apart from the early Remingtons or from any modern revolvers. What exactly is a top strap on a revolver?
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: How to make peanut butter less sticky?
The trick is to mix it with something else such as, Powdered Milk Oatmeal Powdered sugar Graham Crackers Rice Crispies You can also add other things to increase the sweetness like, Chocolate Chips Honey What you are looking for is for the combination to have the consistency of Play-Doh. What ...
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about 3 years ago
Question How to make peanut butter less sticky?
Peanut butter can be good source of protein or useful for emergency rations, but it can be sticky and not finger friendly, how can you make it less sticky?
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What kind of ropes are used for very long sport routes (like Chilam Balam)?
You don&#x2019;t need a 160 meter rope just two 80 meter ropes joined with a knot. Or you could do it with one 80 meter climbing rope and another lighter retrieval line. If this is a situation where there is not going to be a second climber then at the anchor the first climber can pull the end of...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What types of food make for good emergency rations that I can store in a car?
The cheap and simple solution to this is 5 lbs of peanut butter i.e. two normal sized Jiff containers and a spoon ducktaped to the containers for approximately 12,000 + calories. If unopened, they should have a shelf life of over a year, and you could always just replace them every so often and eat ...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: When is a good time to go hunting for deer antler sheds?
You want to go after they have dropped their antlers and before the grass has really started growing again in the Spring since that will hide the sheds. When they shed can vary depending on the area and the year, One thing we do know is that after the rut, a buck&#x2019;s testosterone levels beg...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What are the advantages/disadvantages of octagonal barrels?
A octagonal barrel has several advantages, They look really cool and historic. The historical reason they were made that way is, Practically all are barrels are now turned to a round circumference or shape, concentric with the bore. Our old gunsmith makers of muzzle loading rifles almost invari...
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about 3 years ago
Question What are the advantages/disadvantages of octagonal barrels?
Some modern firearms can come with either round or octagonal barrels, such as the 45-70 Marlin Guide vs the 45-70 Marlin Cowboy. What would the advantages of one over the other be?
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Do climbing shoes wear out from age alone?
They won't wear out from age alone. It seems like the big sticking point to the author of the article was that the foam loses its padding over time, As a general rule, he tells customers who are casual runners they can go about a year (even if you don&#x2019;t rack up 300 to 500 miles in that tim...
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about 3 years ago
Question Is the correct term Canada Goose or Canadian Goose?
The author of a question on our site referred to a certain type of goose as a Canadian goose. Some people thought that the correct name is Canada goose, rather than Canadian. Wikipedia refers to them as Canada Goose but will redirect from Canadian Goose. I have always heard them referred to as Cana...
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about 3 years ago
Question How are minimum legal calibers for hunting decided?
For most big game species in the United States there is a minimum legal caliber where in order for a cartridge to be used for hunting it has to be of a certain size. For example, For all big and trophy game species, legal firearms also include any cartridge of at least .35 caliber and at least 1...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: How do you safely and legally dispose of old, damaged/unsafe camp stove gas canisters that are still full?
In some of the National Parks in the United States there is actually a program to recycle the containers. The Propane Bottle Recycler (PBR), a mobile propane cylinder recycling unit, is now being utilized to recycle an estimated 20,000, small, one-pound propane cylinders discarded in the greater ...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Is acute mountain sickness repeatable?
Yes, he can get it again and in fact people with a history of altitude sickness have a higher risk of getting it again. Risk factors for altitude illness include rapid ascent, strenuous physical exertion, young age, living at a low altitude, and a history of altitude illness. Altitude Illness: ...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: As an outdoor beginner, what features in knife/tool combinations should I look for?
It's pretty usual to carry both a multi-tool and a regular fixed/folding knife. The knives on a multi-tool are okay for small tasks but once you want to do some serious cutting such as whittling or skinning or cutting food, a dedicated knife is much better than one that is included on a multi-tool. ...
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about 3 years ago
Question How can I make an obsidian knife?
I have some obsidian and I know that it can be made into knives and other sharp objects such as arrowheads. Historically this was done for a long time in the United States before there were steel blades. Steel has a lot of advantages, but I think that it would be a fun project to make one and it co...
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about 3 years ago
Question What should I look for in throwing knives?
Inspired mostly by this answer, if I were to decide to buy a set of throwing knives for just for fun, what exactly should I be looking for? I do realize that throwing knives are not legal everywhere, but they are legal where I am at. Are there features that would make one set better than another?
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Can I visit Betatakin in mid-May?
You will have to call and find out. Scheduling: Betatakin tours are free and available during the regular season, May 27, 2017&#x2013; September 3, 2017, with a limit of 25 people per tour. All tours to Betatakin are on a first come, first serve basis. Reservations are not required. Off-season wi...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Is it possible to partially change color of down jacket?
It looks like the answer is no, The biggest problem you face in dyeing a coat is that it probably has a DWR (Durable Water Repellent) finish. This is a coating that is applied to the outside of the fabric to resist water. It's very important to have a DWR finish on a down coat, because down loses...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Hiking with boots untied?
This seems to be the definition of valuing looks over function. I mean, yes you can hike with the laces untied, but its going to make you more likely to trip and slip around and your feet are going to slide around around in your boots and that will lead to blisters. Personally I have never understoo...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: How to correctly identify a bird that looks like a Cooper's Hawk or a Peregrine Falcon?
That definitely looks like a Cooper's hawk. First consider this picture of a Cooper's hawk that looks remarkable similar. Image Source The other thing to consider is that in your picture and this one is that they both have dark and light bands in the tail feathers and Peregrine falcons do not h...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What is a catch feature in orienteering?
A catch feature is a feature that you will run into, if you have gone too far. As you can see above, if you are using the stream as a handrail feature to get to the bridge in order to cross, the trail acts as a catch feature. If you are heading towards a catch feature and not following a handrai...
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about 3 years ago
Question What is a catch feature in orienteering?
On of the terms used in orienteering is "catch feature". What exactly is a catch feature and how would a catch feature help one with navigating in the outdoors?
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: In orienteering/navigation, what is a handrail feature?
A handrail feature is something that you can travel paralleled to in order to reach your destination. A good example of this would be a stream/river as while you wouldn't want to follow directly beside it due to any swamps/marshes/beaver dams or trying to follow the bends, staying parallel to it, w...
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about 3 years ago
Question In orienteering/navigation, what is a handrail feature?
One of the terms in orienteering/navigation is "handrail feature". What exactly does this term mean?
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Minimum draw weight for a target practice only crossbow?
You are comparing apples to oranges here. You can have a much much higher pull weight on a crossbow, simply because it is easier and you can use mechanical advantage. If you look at history, the advantages of a crossbow is that the archers didn't need to have the same amount of physical strength re...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Is there any evidence that attaching a biner to both seat and leg loops results in a 3-way load?
Consider this Black Diamond Harness, Image Source as you will notice, there is no belay loop at all. This is how the directions show one belaying with it. However, this type of harness is designed to be used this way, most other harnesses are not. For data on how hard it would be to break a t...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: What is the meaning and proper usage of the term "irruption" in bird behavior?
TLDR: Its when a massive amount of birds suddenly migrate all at once to a area they aren't usually found in. An irruption is a dramatic, irregular migration of large numbers of birds to areas where they aren&#x2019;t typically found, possibly at a great distance from their normal ranges. Th...
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about 3 years ago
Answer A: Can a dog thru-hike 2500 miles in 6 months?
People have taken dogs on long thru hikes in about that time. This summer my dog was (I&#x2019;m fairly certain) the first to complete a thru-hike of the Continental Divide Trail. We began our adventure June 20th at Chief Mountain in Glacier National Park on the Canada/Montana border. We hik...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Sports tape to prevent blisters while backpacking?
I have used sports tape before and it does work to prevent blisters. Sometimes people will also use ductape Personally other ways of preventing blisters are better because you have to peal the tape off after.
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Why are large/pear shaped locking carabiners called HMS carabiners?
These types of carabiners are designed to be used with a Munter Hitch. The Munter Hitch was created by a Swiss mountain guide named Werner Munter who called it, Halbmastwurfsicherung, meaning half clove hitch belay. Source The abbreviation for Halbmastwurfsicherung is HMS and that is why the l...
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over 3 years ago
Question Why are large/pear shaped locking carabiners called HMS carabiners?
Carabiners like this one, Image Source are called HMS carabiners. Why are they called that and what does HMS stand for?
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over 3 years ago
Question Are there any non-legal advantages of a non-locking knife?
In lots of places around the world, locking folding knives are illegal for everyday carry while non-locking folding knives are much less restricted. Almost everyone I know who carries a knife daily has a locking and my biggest concern would be the blade closing when I don't want it to and cutting me...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: How to get up for an alpine start without an alarm?
There are some things that will help in getting up early without an alarm. Drink more water than normal before bed , this ensures that you won't sleep all of the way through the night. Try to sleep so that the rising moon/early twilight will shine on you earlier (don't sleep on the west side of a b...
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over 3 years ago
Question How to get up for an alpine start without an alarm?
Sometimes, one needs to get up for an alpine start i.e. really, really early, and yet not have a functioning alarm. Cell phones have a tendency to lose the correct time when shut off and then turned back on in an area with no service and watches can break or run out of batteries. Are there any tips ...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: What are the different techniques to jam in a crack?
To start with, Tips Fingers Ringlock Handjams (thumbs up, thumbs down, cupped hand) Fistjams Hand &amp; Fist stack Fist stack "Chicken wing" Arm bar whole body (chimney): frog (feet against back wall, knees aginst front wall) sitting (back against back wall, feet against front wall) stemming (l...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: How to painlessly remove gunk left by tape gloves?
After looking around the internet, it seems that oils can be used to remove tape residue. So things like, Olive Oil Coconut Oil would be possibilities for removing the gunk and shouldn't hurt if it gets into cuts. They should also be good for your hands, especially if they are dry.
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Can I eat raw acorns?
It looks like eating raw acorns won't kill you but its not likely to be pleasant and can harm you. That said, even &#x201C;sweet&#x201D; acorns should be leached to remove what tannins exist in them because several studies show that unleached acorns can make you constipated and can harm your teet...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: What features should I look for in gear to support front wheels of wheelchairs for travel on snowy paths?
I think what you are looking for is these attachments called Wheelblades, Image Source essentially mini skis that lock onto the front wheels of a wheelchair, Wheelblades are designed as an easy-to-use solution that aid traction and give a little extra oomph through snow, ice and slush. .....
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: In what situations is it irresponsible not to carry a PLB or satellite messenger device?
TLDR: You can be irresponsible with or without a PLB The most basic principle of responsibility in the wilderness is that YOU are ultimately responsible for your own safety. With that being the case there are few things more irresponsible than than the idea that you can take risks, and if anything...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Camping on top of a mountain
You can sleep up high on top of peaks but there are a couple of reasons it isn't usually done, You have to haul all of your heavy gear (sleeping bags, bivy/tent etc) instead of leaving that at a base camp and taking a light day pack. There is usually less water higher up, so you have to haul that t...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: How to "store" excess rope in a running belay?
The way I have always done that is wrap the extra rope around my self. It goes over one shoulder and then under the the arm on the other side. Then, in addition to tying it at the end of the rope with a figure-eight like normal, you tie another figure-of-eight on a byte and clip that to your belay l...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: What do classifications of belays (like "4th class belay") mean?
A better description for 4th class belay would be simul-climbing or running belays. That is when you are roped together with intermediate protection. I described such a scenario here. Its typically done on easier climbs when the risk of falling is much lower. 5th class is actual rock climbing with b...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: How to describe a trail well for others in a systematic way?
At a minimum a trail description should include, Start End Distance/Elevation Change Estimated Time For describing the actual trail you would want to include, The general direction. What the elevation trend is, uphill vs downhill or mixed. The type of terrain, rolling, forested, flat, lots of s...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Possible snowy owl seen in the trees
As the Sherlock Holmes would say, How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth? If you look through the list of owls in Idaho, or the list of owls in North America you will notice that the only white owl is th...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: What is a nose-hooked carabiner and why is it dangerous?
To put it simply, it is when the nose of the carabiner gets hooked onto something, which reduces its strength dramatically. This happens by preventing the carabiner gate from closing and keeping it in a position that results in a catastrophic load pattern. This can happen for instance when sport c...
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over 3 years ago
Question What is a nose-hooked carabiner and why is it dangerous?
In rock climbing a carabiner can get nose-hooked and it is a very dangerous situation. What exactly is a nose-hooked carabiner and why is it dangerous?
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: What to do if someone gets impaled in the stomach?
To quote from the Wilderness First Responder manual, Large objects found impaled in a wound should be left in place if you can get to a medical facility with relative ease. Yanking on an object can stimulate serious bleeding and damage underlying structures, especially if the object is impaled in...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Can you get permanent brain damage by spending a day at 10,000ft (~3000m) altitude?
TLDR: Yes, it can happen at that altitude, but the odds are extremely low. Long answer High-altitude cerebral edema has happened at lower than 10,000 ft. The condition is seldom seen below 3,000 metres (9,800 ft),2 but in some rare cases it has developed as low as 2,500 metres (8,200 ft). Sou...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Why is there a cock vane/feather?
Actually, it is done to minimize the possibility that the feathers will contact the arrow rest. Since there are different types of arrow rests, the direction pointed will depend on the type of rest. The nock of your arrows should be adjusted so that when placed on the string (nocked) the cock fea...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Can a click-up belay tool cause rope wear?
Any belay device will cause wear and tear on the rope since they work by applying friction to the rope. There is a lot more friction when lowering a person than when belaying them so wear on that part of the rope is to be expected. It&#x2019;s pretty normal for the sheath to look fuzzy or have s...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Can horses ford deeper/faster rivers than humans?
Horses are bigger and stronger and than humans and because of the square cube law, they have more mass to surface area which makes them better suited to fording deeper/faster rivers. As to whether or not you could cross where the horses do, that will depend on the individual crossing. You probably c...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Is there a smartwatch/activity tracker lasting 20 days for a trek to Everest Base Camp?
There is at least one, the Vector Luna Smart Watch. Vector Watch&#x2019;s tagline is &#x201C;The smartwatch with a 30-day battery life&#x201D; and they really put the battery lifetime in the front line. It is really hard to find a smartwatch these days which will hold the charge for a whole month...
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over 3 years ago
Question Is this rock I found on the Toiyabe Crest Trail an arrowhead?
I found this arrowhead-shaped rock on the Toiyabe Crest trail in Nevada, USA. I'm wondering if it actually is an arrowhead. It's about 1.5 inches long. The reasons that I think it could be is that it's about the right shape and the edges looked like it had been sharpened. It also has what looks li...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Eye safety when starting a fire with a magnifying glass
I would just use eclipse glasses. As they are safe to look directly at the sun with, then they should be fine to look at the bright spot caused by the magnifying glass. Just make certain that they are certified and not rip-offs and then you should be good to go. They meet all of your requirements an...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: What's the best or easiest way to attach a loop tag onto canvas?
If I was going to do this, I would use a Speedy Stitcher or similar tool, to stitch the loop to the tent and then cover the stitches with a canvas seam sealer. I wouldn't trust glue as there is going to be a lot of pull on the loop tag (the whole point of adding the loop tag is to be able to exer...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: What is a good R value for a four-season sleeping pad?
It looks like there is not a consensus on what the minimum R value should be, but that the higher the R value the better. It will also depend on how you sleep and what your comfort level is. If it would be possible to borrow one to try it out before going I would suggest doing that. Its worth trying...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Can I use solar showers when camping at Department of Conservation or other campsites in New Zealand?
It looks like the answer is yes as they are one of the recommended items to bring as a camp host. Solar shower &#x2013; there are cold water showers available Camp host information for Kenepuru Head Beyond that, solar showers are mentioned by several reviews of the campgrounds. The showers...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: What exactly do the 2 knobs on my Zeiss 10 &#xD7; 25B binoculars do?
The knob on the left is for adjusting the focus to the distance, the knob on the right is for diopter adjustment. Beside the center focusing wheel, there usually is a separate diopter adjustment that serves to compensate for unequal vision that might exist between the viewer's two eyes. The diopt...
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over 3 years ago
Question How to decore a retired climbing rope?
One of the things you can do with a retired climbing rope is to decore it (remove the main center section), and turn the sheath into rope bracelets. The last time I decored a rope I cut it into approximately 4 ft sections and then pulled the center strands out before cutting it into smaller pieces....
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over 3 years ago
Question Do mountain lions play with their food?
House cats will play with their food i.e. catch a mouse then let it go and then recatch it over and over again before finally eating it. Do mountain lions exhibit similar behavior?
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: How to estimate the time between direct sunlight and sunrise?
The solution is the same as for estimating the time until sunset. What you do is hold your arms straight out in front of you and then stack them up from level until you reach the horizon. Each hand is equal to approximately one hour. This can be useful in situations where you have the option of cam...
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over 3 years ago
Question How to estimate the time between direct sunlight and sunrise?
Sometimes due to a high ridge or other land feature, the time that the sun comes over the horizon and gives direct sunlight is different from the time calculated by a sunrise table. From personal experience it can be up to several hours later. Is there a way to at least estimate the time of direct...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: How to compactify the long straps on a tent or tarp when not in use?
For my tarp I just fold the tarp and then wrap the strings around it. For a tent you can wrap the cords as described in these answers so that it looks something like this, I wouldn't worry too much about it, the more you camp and use it, the better you will get at it.
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: When calling in elk during bow season, where should the caller be in relation to the hunter?
The caller should be at least 50 yards downwind of of the hunter. The reason is that elk have a good sense where a call is coming from and won't get very close (usually around 50 yards) to that spot unless they see another elk. If the caller is right next to the hunter, the elk will usually stay j...
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over 3 years ago
Question When calling in elk during bow season, where should the caller be in relation to the hunter?
If you are hunting elk in a team of two people with one attempting to call it in and the other to kill it, where should the caller be in relation to the hunter?
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: How do forest fires affect rock climbing?
A forest fire can definitely affect the rocks and cause hazards (in addition to the hazards in the forest). Hot burning fires destabilize rock. This can result in removal of rock coatings, flaking, scaling, and/or abrasion. Source Spall is flakes of a material that are broken off a large...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: What is a lava tube, as a place to see bats? Are there any in the United States?
Basically, a lava tube is formed when a underground lava flow stops flowing, leaving behind a long tubular cave. A lava tube is a natural conduit formed by flowing lava which moves beneath the hardened surface of a lava flow. Tubes can be draining lava from a volcano during an eruption, or can be...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: How does a European Robin differ from an American Robin?
American Robin, Source European Robin Source They are from different families of birds, The American robin (Turdus migratorius) is a migratory songbird of the thrush family. It is named after the European robin3 because of its reddish-orange breast, though the two species are not closely ...
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over 3 years ago
Question Are there any studies showing that being in good aerobic shape will lessen the risk of altitude sickness?
This answer mentions, The single most effective thing you can do to improve your acclimatization rate is to get in good aerobic shape before starting your trip. It seems plausible that being in good aerobic shape would help one acclimatize, are there there any studies to back this up?
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: How long after a forest fire can you safely re-enter a forest?
As far as the danger from hotspots, it looks like it could be a while, A municipal leader in British Columbia's central Interior says he wouldn't be surprised if wildfires that have chewed through more than 10,600 square kilometres of woodland smoulder until 2018. Chairman Al Richmond of the...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: How to tell the difference between elk and hunters using elk calls?
The tricks are, Humans carry both bugle (bull) and cow calls, while a bull elk won't make cow noises. So hearing a bugle and then a cow call from the same place is almost guaranteed to be a human. Humans can be over eager to respond and will bugle back very quickly while elk will take a while. Elk ...
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over 3 years ago
Question How to tell the difference between elk and hunters using elk calls?
Sometimes when hunting elk, especially archery, you will hear elk calls and be unsure whether it is an elk or a human using an elk call. How could one tell the difference?
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: What is the Origin of the Word "Sendtember" in Rock Climbing?
It's a combination of Send and September. Sendtember &#x2013; according to climbing folklore &#x2013; is blessed with perfect cool, dry, stable spring conditions in which climbers can harvest the gains made in a long winter of hard training. September, they say, is the most sendingest month of th...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Is it safe to take a shower outside during a thunderstorm?
One of the basic principles of lightning safety is that you don't want to be the highest thing around and you don't want to be under something that is the highest thing around. For example only one group has ever been struck while floating the Colorado through the Grand Canyon, but multiple people h...
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over 3 years ago
Question How warm does it need to be for bats to come out of their caves?
Once, I was waiting for bats to come out of a cave (I knew there were some in the cave) and they never came out that I could see. While it was after hibernation and the bats were definitely awake (up and squeaking), it was kind of cold (too cold for short sleeves) and I wondered if that might have k...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Would a gunshot echo in a cave?
It turns out that gunshots can be used to map caves, The decade-long search might have gone a little differently, though, if soldiers had access to a new system that can use sound waves from a gunshot to quickly map unknown caves and tunnels. The portable system, created by David Bowen of Acente...
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over 3 years ago
Question Can I avoid dew by sleeping at higher elevations?
On backpacking trips, I would like to avoid dew because it means either waiting till the sun has come up and dried my stuff off or packing wet things and drying them later. My experience is that dew is less likely at higher elevations, is this true or simply a coincidence?
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Why do Old Town canoes have dramatically higher capacity than Osagian canoes?
It could just be a difference between how the companies calculate it. From an article about kayak weight capacity, There's no industry standard for determining the maximum weight capacity of a fishing kayak. Every company approaches the question a little differently. The more you dive into the n...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Is belaying a lead more difficult than a top roped climber
If a climber on top rope, takes a fall, there isn't much force at all compared with the forces that are generated when a lead climber falls. That force has the potential to pull the belayer into something or even off the ground and into the climber. There is also a risk, when the lead climber first ...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Can you float-treat a rope?
No, because whether a rope floats or sinks is dependent on its specific gravity (which in turn is dependent on the materials used). [...] Those with SG [special gravity] greater than 1 are denser than water and will, disregarding surface tension effects, sink in it. Those with an SG less than 1 a...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Tips for avoiding losing things when backpacking?
The tips that I can think of are, Keep your backpack organized and place things into the same pockets each time. Try to avoid pulling everything out of your backpack if you don't have to. If you have to pull stuff out of your backpack, place them onto a barren surface like a rock or tarp (avoid lon...
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over 3 years ago
Question Tips for avoiding losing things when backpacking?
It can be a real pain to lose or forget something when backpacking, especially if you have to backtrack miles to retrieve it. Are there any tips to avoid this?
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over 3 years ago
Question How much less efficient is a solar charger when on a car's dashboard instead of in direct sunlight?
When car camping, I use a solar charger to charge my electronics. Sometimes I can place it outside, and other times I will stick it on the dash to charge things. I can tell that putting it on the dash is less efficient, but I wonder by how much?
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: How to stop in the middle of a rappel without an autoblock?
The simple solution is to take the rope (both strands if rappelling on a doubled rope) below the device and wrap the several times around your upper leg and hold your upper leg perpendicular to the ground (this keeps the rope from slipping off). It's not particularly comfortable and you don't want ...
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over 3 years ago
Question How to stop in the middle of a rappel without an autoblock?
Sometimes people rappel without a backup prussik, such as when canyoning and sometimes an auto block needs to be adjusted. In either of these situations, is there a way to stop yourself in the middle of the rappel?
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Lowering other members of a party on belay after rappelling
Here is what I don't like about your plan, the less experienced people will be tying themselves in without you present and the last person won't have a second pair of eyeballs to double check that they have everything set up right. However there is a way to have everyone set up ahead of time. What y...
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over 3 years ago
Question Are there reasons for not putting the mileage on trail signs or is it just a matter of style?
I have seen a lot of trail signs and one thing I noticed is that sometimes they have the distance from one point to another like, Phelps Lake 4 miles Death Canyon Shelf 8 miles and sometimes the mileage is simply omitted. Are there reasons for this or is it simply a matter of style?
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: What is an alpine start?
An alpine start is when one starts a climb really early in the morning (well before sunrise). Usually the goal is to make it to the top and back down before the conditions deteriorate. Getting too late of a start increases a number of risks including, Thunderstorms Rockfall Weakened snow bridges ...
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over 3 years ago
Question What is an alpine start?
Sometimes climbers/mountaineers will say that they are getting an alpine start. What does this mean and why would they want to do this?
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over 3 years ago
Question Are there any statistics on how many PLB (Personal Locator Beacon) activations are real as opposed to frivolous?
One of the arguments made against PLBs is that people will use them in non-emergencies and put rescuers in unnecessary peril. This definitely does happen from time to time as in this case in the Grand Canyon, Once again, nightfall prevented a response by park helicopter, so an Arizona DPS helico...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: How often are missing people found?
From this article which is pulling statistics from "Dead Men Walking: Search and Rescue in U.S. National Parks", Wilderness &amp; Environmental Medicine (Volume 20, Number 3), 2009. Estimated number of SAR missions in US each year: 50,000 Percent of SAR operations aiding lost individuals: ...
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over 3 years ago
Question What species of dinosaur made these 3 toed 6 inch long tracks?
With some friends, I saw some dinosaur tracks in Wyoming that looked like this, Can anyone identify what type of dinosaur made these tracks?
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over 3 years ago
Question How much of a temperature difference does a reflective sleeping pad make?
There are foam sleeping pads with a reflective surface on one side like this one with instructions to use the reflective side for maximum warmth. I don't doubt that it is warmer, but I do wonder by how much especially since I used both sides of one this summer and couldn't really tell the differ...
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over 3 years ago
Question What are the arguments for and against allowing bicycles in wilderness areas in the US?
Currently bicycles are prohibited in federal wilderness areas in the United States. However there is a bill in the House of Representatives that would remove the prohibition. As one can imagine, this has stirred up a rather fierce debate on both sides of the proposal both for and against. Important...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: Are square or rectangular tarp shapes more versatile?
After a lot of thought, I don't think that there are any shape configurations that would be limited to just a square or just a rectangular tarp. However, when you are sleeping under a tarp, either on the ground or in a hammock your body is in a rectangular shape. I use a 5ftx7ft tarp and if it was 7...
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over 3 years ago
Question What happens to the bear after being pepper sprayed?
If a bear kills a human, it is usually euthanized as in the case of a grizzly bear that partially ate a man in Yellowstone It also seems likely to end sadly for the bears. Park officials have captured the sow believed to have killed Crosby along with one of her two cubs. If DNA evidence matches h...
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over 3 years ago
Question What were the original trail signs on the Toiyabe Crest Trail?
This summer I did the Toiyabe Crest Trail and noticed that there are three different kinds of trail signs: Cheap plastic triangular ones that say Toiyabe Crest National Recreation Trail Square posts with small signs that say TCT &uarr; Round posts with Crest Trail incised into them I think that i...
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over 3 years ago
Answer A: What are the differences between black sheep merino wool and other merino wool?
There are two possible explanations that I can think of, The wool comes from rare actual black merino sheep. Do you have natural colored Merino sheep? Yes, we do. Black Merino sheep are quite rare and it took us many years to build up our flock to a sizeable number. Source This is market...
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almost 4 years ago
Question How do you aim a signal mirror?
Say you are in the middle of a desert where there is lots of sunshine, and you are trying to signal for help with a signal mirror. Either in the distance there is a person, or there is an airplane overhead that you are trying to reach. How should one aim the signal mirror so that the light that is ...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Is there a safer way to use a flare in a wooded area?
I would say that the alternatives in the the answers to the linked question would be a better idea, but if you had to use a flare then there are a couple of things that could lessen but not eliminate the risk. Shoot the flare in such a way that when it comes down, it ends up in a body of water such...
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almost 4 years ago
Question What are the risks of stream crossing with bare feet?
Sometimes while backpacking you have to cross streams, and from a weight point of view, it would be nicer to just cross in your bare feet, instead of bringing an extra pair of shoes along. These situations wouldn't be raging rivers but rather streams that can't be crossed without getting your feet ...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: What is the risk of starting a forest or wildland fire with a flare gun?
There is a definitely a risk of starting a fire with a flare gun, for this reason they are discouraged by the National Park Service (at least in Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument). Not Useful: Cell phones do not have service in the monument Flares are not always visible to pilots...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Modern equivalent of a flare gun?
In increasing order of complexity and price you have, Personal Locator Beacons Personal locator beacons are high-powered (typically, 5 watts) devices designed primarily to send out a personalized emergency distress signal. They generally require an open view of the sky to transmit successfully....
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: What should you do if your crampons start balling up?
The warning sign of balling up is that your boots will be noticeably heavier due to the snow sticking to them. Once that happens your options include Lift up one boot at a time and knock the side of the boot with your ice axe or trekking pole. Knock your boots together every so often to dislodge ...
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almost 4 years ago
Question What should you do if your crampons start balling up?
Balling up is when the snow starts sticking to the bottom of your crampons to the point that the crampon points are no longer touching the surface. As one can imagine this is a rather dangerous situation. They do make anti-balling plates that are supposed to keep this from happening, but I have stil...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Where are some places for people who can't stand up to learn water skiing?
It looks like the gear you need is what is called a "sit ski" Individuals that are unable to stand will ski using a &#x201C;sit ski,&#x201D; which comes in a variety of sizes from wide, stable skis to narrow, competitive skis. &#x201C;Probably 80 percent of our students use a sit-down water ...
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almost 4 years ago
Question What is the minimum amount of gear that would allow one to ascend a climbing rope?
If you had a climbing rope anchored above you on either a sheer cliff or a really steep incline, what is the minimum amount of gear that a person would need to ascend the rope without assistance from above?
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Fisherman rescue, what gear is required?
The simplest way that I can think of is to have all of the fishermen carry a climbing harness and enough gear that they could ascend the rope. Have two climbing ropes in the truck, one for use and one for backup and if a a fisherman needs help getting up the cliff, anchor the rope, toss the end down ...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Is a .22 air-rifle powerful enough for a clean kill of a rabbit?
It looks like because you are in the UK, there is a power restriction, which means that you can either go high velocity, lightweight pellet or a low velocity heavy pellet. If that restriction wasn't there, more power would make for cleaner kills. Regardless of calibre, all standard air rifles are...
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almost 4 years ago
Question If I have extra space in a backpack, am I better packing it short and fat or tall and thin?
Basically, I have one large backpack and if I end up going for a much shorter trip, say for 3 days instead of 2+ weeks, I am going to end up with empty space in the backpack. From a stability and comfort point of view, am I better off leaving the side compression straps completely undone until I am ...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: How strong are the individual internal strands in 550 parachute cord?
It looks like for mil spec (military specification) 550 parachute cord, The paracord sheath is rated at about 300-pounds 14 inner strings, each of which has a rating of about 17.5 pounds 7 strands made up of two strings each for a rating of 35 pounds. Source Basically, if the cord in...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: How to pull someone up in a rescue situation?
In an ideal situation where you are using a belay device in guide mode off of the anchor, I would use a z-pulley, mostly because it would be so fast to set up. Consider your position before setting it up, at this point all it takes to set up a 3:1 z-pulley is to attach a prussik onto the climber ...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Camp fire starting for the novice?
Basically, to start a fire you need to complete the fire triangle, At the very beginning you will need some kind of starter that can create heat, like a lighter or magnifying glass or matches to get the first spark/flame going. Then you begin with things that have a lower autoignition temperature...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Would there be any practical uses of a geological map for a hiker/backpacker?
One practical use is to get an idea of how stable/chossy the rocks in a particular area are. From experience the orange (volcanic) rock type is much more unstable and more broken up. That makes it much harder to scramble up the mountains in the volcanic areas as opposed to the granite mountains in t...
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almost 4 years ago
Question Would there be any practical uses of a geological map for a hiker/backpacker?
I just found that I can get free geological map overlays for Google Earth for all of the individual states in the United States from here. For instance, this is what a good deal of Yosemite National Park looks like. To see what type of rocks a color represents, you simply have to click on it. For...
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almost 4 years ago
Question How strong are the individual internal strands in 550 parachute cord?
550 Parachute cord is a very small kermantle rope (has a core and an external sheath) as you can see in this image. The minimum breaking strength of the cord is 550 pounds, hence the name. It is sometimes mentioned that in a survival situation, these strands could be used to create snares or as f...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Good resources for climbing
The Textbook/Bible of Mountaineering: The standard book is Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills. That book covers all of the basics for rock climbing and a lot more topics. From the chapter titles of the eighth edition, it covers a lot of topics and I have highlighted the relevant chapters. C...
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almost 4 years ago
Question Have the climbing signals "take" and "safe" every been confused to the point of an accident?
There is a story I have heard about climbers who confused "take" and "safe" and I am wondering if it has actually happened. The story goes like this, The climber is out of sight of the belayer and gets to a hard spot. The climber yells down "TAKE" "Please pull in as much slack as possible." ...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Details on closure of Rte 120 into Yosemite? (Not normal snow closure.)
A dormant spring started up again due to the winter's snow and rain underneath the road and loosened up the underlying soil to the point that the road slid downhill. An underground seasonal spring that began flowing again after being dormant for years was the cause of a 200-foot long fissure rese...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: When is it a bad idea to follow a game trail?
Traffic Jams The way that game trails are created is by animals walking on them and therefore you can have a higher chance of seeing them. Small animals will get out of your way but moose or bears would be a problem. There really isn't a good way to tell that animals haven't been on a trail, since ...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: What is dead reckoning when navigating with a map and compass?
Basically, it is using compass headings and distance traveled to navigate to points without intermediate known locations. For instance if you were to start from camp and travel directly east for 4 hours in the middle of the night at a pace of 2 miles per hour, then you could look at a map and say th...
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almost 4 years ago
Question What is dead reckoning when navigating with a map and compass?
There is a technique for navigation known as dead reckoning, what is this technique exactly and when would it be useful?
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: How would navigation be different while hiking at night?
There are a couple of differences. Visibility is reduced during the night which makes it harder to see landmarks or where you are in relation to them. This also makes it much harder to measure your progress. It is much harder to keep track of which direction you are going without a compass or GPS. ...
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almost 4 years ago
Question How would navigation be different while hiking at night?
If one were to hike during the night and sleep during the day, what differences in navigation would one have to take into account? In my experience you are more on instruments (such as a compass or GPS) so to speak because of the lower visibility, but are there any other differences?
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almost 4 years ago
Question Do regular lighters not work at high altitude?
Here is what I would consider a regular Bic butane lighter. However I have noticed that you can buy High Altitude lighters such as this one. Is that just marketing or would a regular lighter not work at high altitudes?
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Is Permethrin safe for cats after it dries?
It looks like the answer is yes it is safe after it drys, Do not expose cats to wet permethrin as it affects their central nervous system. This is not true with dogs, horses, or cows. Cats can be around permethrin treated fabrics once the application has dried. Source If a product containin...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: How should helmets be placed on the ground?
Basically, there are happy turtles and there are dead turtles and helmets should always be placed in the happy position. Happy helmets stick around, while dead helmets have a tendency to slide down the rock. Of course you could always clip the helmet to something, but it can be much easier to ju...
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almost 4 years ago
Question How should helmets be placed on the ground?
Imagine you are sitting around ready to begin; you have your gear spread out, and your helmets are off. How should you place your helmet so that it doesn't wander off?
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almost 4 years ago
Question Are there any advantages while backpacking to hike during the night and sleep during the day?
This is something I have pondered on multiple occasions, when the light of the full moon and the altitude induced insomnia kept me awake long into the night. I realize that this would be an unusual strategy, but I have heard of people doing it, such as Jedediah Smith while crossing a desert on his ...
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almost 4 years ago
Question What should one do when climbing if someone above you yells ROCK?
Hearing someone above you yell ROCK when climbing is a scary experience because that means that an object (usually a rock) is plummeting down to the route towards you. Hopefully you are wearing your helmet, are there any actions/steps one should take in this situation?
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almost 4 years ago
Question How to determine the needed volume size when purchasing a backpack?
In addition to sizes for different sizes of people, backpacks also have a volume size, usually given in liters or cubic inches, as a measure of how much stuff the backpack can hold. How can I determine what volume size I need, for a given time frame, from say a day hike to a multi-week backpacking t...
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almost 4 years ago
Question How can I backpack further without resupplying?
There are a couple of long hikes that I am thinking of doing, both are 70 to 80 miles (110 to 130 km) long one way. I would like to do a yo-yo (140 to 160 miles, 230 to 260 km) without a resupply. I am not worried about running out of food, since I can just hike until half of the food is gone and th...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Do zebra mothers seek revenge?
This happens because stallions will kill foals that are not their own. This is where things can take a dark turn. If the females in the harem have recently given birth, the new dominant male may kill their foals to eliminate any traces of his predecessor, and to bring the females into oestrus in ...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Are there sound-based alternatives to whistle signals for group communication?
One alternative is to use animal calls. For instance, on a clear night an elk bugle call can be heard up to a mile away. There are also duck calls or push-to-call cow elk calls. These should not replace a whistle as an emergency signaling device, but as a way to hear where your team members are or s...
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almost 4 years ago
Question Are there sound-based alternatives to whistle signals for group communication?
Whistles can be used to signal to group members, however the downside is that other people may think you are having an emergency. Are there any other devices that would allow you to signal with noise to other members of you team but would not cause other hikers to assume that you are in trouble?
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almost 4 years ago
Question What should go in the hiking/backpacking plan that you leave with someone else?
It is good practice on a hiking or backpacking trip to leave a written plan behind with someone. Then if you fail to return by your estimated date Search and Rescue will have an idea of where to look for you. Besides the your expected return date, what should go in your written plan and how detailed...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Are there standard whistle signals for communicating with separated party members?
From Scouting For Girls, Official Handbook of the Girl Scouts Whistle Signals One blast, "Attention"; "Assemble" (if scattered). Two short blasts, "All right." Four short blasts, calls "Patrol Leaders come here." Alternate long and short blasts, "Mess Call." From Scouting for B...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: What is the history of the Duckbill rock formation in Oregon?
For your specific questions, The rock type is sandstone. This type of rock formation is called a Hoodoo and they happen when a harder rock type or layer is ontop of a weaker layer. The weaker layer erodes away faster, leaving the cap on top. It was naturally formed. It seems like it only got on the...
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almost 4 years ago
Question On average, how often do people thru hiking the Pacific Crest Trail resupply?
I have been wondering how often the thru-hikers on the Pacific Crest Trail resupply. I would assume that it depends on the part of the trail and the hiker, but is there an average distance or length of time between resupplies?
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Sign in/Sign out sheets for dangerous passages while hiking!
Sometimes, especially where permits are required, it is mandatory to fill out the sign-in/sign out books. Usually they are at trailheads, although I could see them on a particular piece or trail and perhaps shelters along the way. However, mandatory or not, it is almost always a good idea to put you...
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almost 4 years ago
Question How do you get bear spray off skin and or gear?
Let's say that you are out backpacking and a bear spray canister accidentally goes off and gets on your skin or in your eyes or onto your clothing? It can't be a pleasant experience as it is meant to deter bears, how can you get it off yourself and your gear in the field (as any residue could potent...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: What and where is the builder's plate on a boat?
According to the Guide to the NEW Recreational Craft Directive 2013/53/EU page 8, a builder's plate has the following information on it, Manufacturer&#x2019;s name, registered trade name or registered trademark, contact address CE marking Watercraft design category Manufacturer&#x2019;...
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almost 4 years ago
Question How dangerous are wild horses?
In some parts of the western United States there are herds of wild horses. How dangerous could a herd be to a human on foot while hiking or backpacking? If they are dangerous how should a human protect themselves?
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Do squirrels' teeth grow again when lost?
Once the squirrel has reached the adult stage, their teeth do not regrow if lost. Infant tree squirrels have three pairs of milk teeth that are replaced by adult teeth when the squirrel is four to five months old. Once the adult teeth come in, they do not re-grow if lost or removed. The baby&#x2...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: What are opposite and opposed carabiners?
This is what a diagram of opposite and opposed carabiners looks like. The gates are on opposite sides and form a X when laid over the top of each other. The purpose of doing this is to make it difficult for both gates to open at the same time, because even if the rope doesn't slip out, a carabine...
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almost 4 years ago
Question What are opposite and opposed carabiners?
It is often said that when using two carabiners at the same point, such as an anchor, they should be opposite and opposed. What exactly does this mean?
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: How do you set up a z-pulley?
Basically it looks like this. The rope goes from the object to a caribiner that is hooked into the anchor. Then it goes back down to where a prussik and a caribiner have been hooked to the rope going to the object. Then you take the rope through the caribiner, back towards the anchor. To make it ...
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almost 4 years ago
Question How do you set up a z-pulley?
A z-pulley or z-drag is a way of gaining leverage to pull a rope tight or to pull an object or person closer to the anchor. It is commonly used to tighten Tyrolean traverses, recover pinned boats in white water or in mountain or rock climbing scenarios. How would one set one up?
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Is this yucky thing scat or slime mold?
After looking through all of the pages of Google Image search slime molds, I was unable to find anything that resembled the brown stuff in the above images. There is a list of the Slime Molds of the Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Washington and nothing in that looks similar either. I would say that...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: How effective or ineffective are tactical flashlights on bears?
At night it would still be a good idea to have the flashlight, because the farther away you could potentially see a bear, the more time you have to adjust your course to avoid it. Whether or not it would blind a bear is hard to say, I haven't been able to find any experiments on bears one way or ano...
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almost 4 years ago
Question Without rain/snow/wind would it be significantly warmer to sleep under a tarp?
If you are sleeping in a rainstorm it would be warmer to sleep under a tarp, since otherwise you are going to get wet. It would be rather difficult to enclose a space with a tarp to the level that a tent provides and so I am wondering if setting up a tarp and sleeping underneath it on a calm night w...
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almost 4 years ago
Question Are there any general rules of thumb for route finding up a mountain without any trails?
Sometimes mountains won't have trails or recorded routes simply because they don't get enough traffic that a trail will be created. Not every mountain has recorded routes simply because people haven't written them down in an easily accessible place for everyone yet. For example, consider this Google...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Lake Tahoe kayaking conditions
It looks like there is a possibility of strong winds, Lake Tahoe is also known for its vibrant blue skies, its sparkling cold waters, and its hazardous wind conditions, especially on the eastern side of the lake. Source and it may take a lot of padding in some places to make it to the next leg...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Has Joe Simpson ever explained why he did not cut the rope himself?
From Chapters 6 and 7 of the book Touching the Void by Joe Simpson, there are two things that I think would explain why he didn't cut the rope. He thought they were both going to die. I knew he was in the same situation as me, unable to move. Either he would die in his seat or be pulled from i...
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almost 4 years ago
Question Are there any tips for preventing a vehicle from being broken into while parked at a trailhead?
It is fairly common practice to drive to a trailhead, park your vehicle and then go backpacking for a while. It would be a real bummer to come back from a trip and find that your vehicle has been broken into. Are there any tips to reduce the likelihood of this happening?
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: What are the pros and cons of greased feet in boots?
Petroleum Jelly (Vaseline) on feet can be used to, Treat dry cracked feet. Treat cracked heals. Reduce friction and therefore the chances of getting blisters. From personal experience the downsides are the ick factor and you are going to ruin your socks. It would be hard to get it out of shoes or...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: At what wind speeds do ski operators close chair lifts, for safety?
It looks like the answer is that it depends on the direction, wind speed, terrain and type of chairlift. The ski area you are going to might keep statistics on how often the wind makes the use of chairlifts unsafe or whether or not they think the lifts will be open for those dates. "It's really a...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: What is the HIN number on a boat?
It's a unique serial number for the boat. The HIN is a 12 character serial number that uniquely identifies your boat. Source The acronym stands for Hull Identification Number. It is possible to either do an online lookup for that number or one can gather the manufacture, and date of certifica...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Why are these turkeys circling a dead cat?
It looks like a combination of checking out a potential predator and following a leader. Turkeys, he says, are naturally fearful of cats, which can be a threat to younger, smaller birds. So it&#x2019;s likely that, when they came across a dead one in the road, they were very curious to see what w...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: "Due to the sheep in the settlement the surrounding area has no mosquitoes"
It looks like there is some truth in it. I don't think that it has to do with the sheep so much as it does with their grazing habits. During the day, mosquitoes like to rest in tall grass or among shrubs in a moist, shady spot. Keeping the grass short deprives them of a resting place. Source ...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: What are the pros and cons of both a DIN and a yoke valve for a scuba-diving regulator?
It looks like a DIN valve can be used at higher pressures and has a more secure connection. Since the fitting is more secure, DIN valves allow the use of higher pressures, and are more suitable for demanding diving situations like technical diving-especially in environments like caves or wrecks, ...
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almost 4 years ago
Answer A: Can you find your location using the angle between compass bearings?
It is possible and to explain why consider the following question. Is the angle formed by the red or by the green lines larger? Trick question! The angles are identical. You see, if we have our two points on the map and know the angle between the bearing from us to them, then we can use that i...
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about 4 years ago
Question Can you find your location using the angle between compass bearings?
Sometimes compasses are less accurate than we would like them to be. They can be thrown off by their surroundings, have their polarity reversed, become demagnetized, develop air bubbles or be taken to the wrong hemisphere. However in all of these cases it should be possible to have whatever is effe...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Dealing with anxiety and confidence issues
For how to deal with irrational fears I don't think there is any substitute for repeatedly conquering them. For instance I used to work at a place where we would take people rock climbing and rappelling which (for most people) are much scarier then just hiking. People would get to the top of the ...
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about 4 years ago
Question What are the pros and cons of air pads vs foam pads for backpacking?
Backpacking sleeping pads come in two basic types, foam and air, with some of the air pads being self-inflating. What are the pros and cons of each and how would one decide which type to get?
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about 4 years ago
Question What should go in an inflatable sleeping pad repair kit?
While backpacking with an inflatable or self-inflating sleeping pad one runs the risk of getting holes in it. This does happen fairly frequently, and while they do make kits, I would like to know what should be in such a kit if I were to purchase one or what components I would need if I wanted to pu...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Could this year's unusual warmth harm turtles?
It looks like it can be harmful for the turtles. Even the healthiest turtle may come out of hibernation too soon and be caught above ground by a spring snowstorm and perish. Many wild box turtles are eaten by foraging animals as they sleep, or freeze to death because they didn&#x2019;t find satis...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Do raw eggs need to be rotated for freshness on a long voyage?
It turns out that raw eggs need to be either sealed or rotated, the people in the video were doing both. The egg shell is semi-permeable. As an egg ages, it loses the slightest amount of internal moisture over time (which is why an old egg floats). To minimize this loss, there are two technique...
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about 4 years ago
Question What are good practices for resolving disagreements on a backpacking trip?
On a backpacking trip with multiple people, it is all but guaranteed that disagreements will arise. Pace, food, wake-up times, route and chores are some of the common sources of friction. Backpacking can be a special set of circumstances for a couple of reasons You can't just leave an annoying per...
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about 4 years ago
Question Do raw eggs need to be rotated for freshness on a long voyage?
Last night I watched a film about a crew that sailed from New Zealand to Patagonia, with a stop in Antarctica, taking over two months to do so. One of the things that caught my attention is when they were talking about their food storage, they mentioned having brought 2,000 raw eggs, covered them i...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: How do you create a sense of community on a backpacking trip?
Most of it will come from having done hard things together. Just being together, say in a classroom, isn't enough, there has to be an element of difficulty. The extreme example of this is men who have served together in combat, which is described extensively in this book, Tribe: On Homecoming and Bel...
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about 4 years ago
Question Are there any situations while backpacking that would require a watch?
One of my favorite things about backpacking is the absence of time constraints, you eat when hungry, sleep when tired and sort of track how much time is left until dark. Would there be any situations while backpacking where it would be detrimental to not have a means of telling time very precisely? ...
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about 4 years ago
Question How do you create a sense of community on a backpacking trip?
Having a sense of community on a backpacking trip can mean the difference between enjoyment and misery. It can also be the difference between backpacking as a team instead of as random group of people. The technical definition is, McMillan &amp; Chavis (1986) define sense of community as "a feel...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: How to temporarily mark a trail?
The easiest way to do this is to turn on the tracking function of your GPS or mark it as a waypoint. Then you can simply follow your track backwards or navigate to the waypoint.
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about 4 years ago
Question How to temporarily mark a trail?
If one needed to hike out and then come back to a certain spot, how could one temporarily mark their trail so that it is easy to follow back to that exact spot when the route back is not obvious? This can be especially important in areas with dense tree cover or otherwise limited visibility. A coup...
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about 4 years ago
Question How to clean picked berries?
After picking berries, you are often left with a pail full of berries, some leaves, some sticks, pieces of stems, sometimes little white worm creatures and some dirt. Is there an easy way to clean a whole bunch of them at once so that you are left with just the berries?
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: How to protect a body in the wilderness?
Most importantly, the living are more important than the dead. Check your scene safety, something killed that person and you want to make sure that it won't kill you as well. I can't imagine that you will be alright, your partner just died. Emotionally, your thinking will probably be off, take extr...
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about 4 years ago
Question What are good locations to find wild strawberries?
Wild strawberries are very tasty, but I have only ever found them by accident. What locations would be good starting points to look for them?
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about 4 years ago
Question Is there any statistical evidence that hunting reduces the likelihood of mountain lion attacks?
There has been some discussion on this question about whether or not hunting would increase or decrease the likelihood of a mountain lion attack. I have seen some websites saying that it does not, but I am skeptical of their objectivity. Have there been any reputable studies done on this? Or at leas...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: How can people survive really cold nights outside with minimal equipment?
I that most of the cases in the article you linked are an example of selection bias, most people in those situations would die. In other words, the people in that article became famous by surviving things that would kill the vast majority of people. They got lucky, if you will. The one who bivyed o...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: When back country camping, how do you avoid being attacked by a mountain lion in your sleep?
If one looks at the list on Wikipedia of fatal attacks, one will notice that fatal cougar attacks are pretty rare. At least 20 people in North America were killed by cougars between 1890 and 2011, including six in California. Children are particularly vulnerable. The majority of the child v...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: What date does a moon phase guide represent?
I believe the way that it works, is the the time at which it peaks/goes darkest is marked as the day that it happens. In this case, on Feb 26th, according to this page, the New Moon will peak at 14:58 UTC. In other words, you're better off using a resource that doesn't just say the day but the act...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Are there types of compass other than the regular magnetic one and the gyrocompass?
Beyond the ones you have mentioned, there are, Solar Compasses The solar compass, a surveying instrument that makes use of the sun's direction, was first invented and made by William Austin Burt.1 Burt&#x2019;s solar compass is a precision instrument made of brass with a solar attachment th...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: If you are faced with surviving on your own for a prolonged period, should a sling make your short list of hunting tools, and why or why not?
Slings are difficult to master, The main reason that slingers were only found among certain groups and fought as specialized corps in the ancient world was because the sling required a much higher level of intensive training than any other weapon. Even the bow with its point-and-shoot firing can ...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: In the absence of lead, what can I use for a projectile in a flintlock rifle?
In the absence of lead, it is possible to use gravel or pieces of metal, as was done by various tribes in the American West, but it will damage the flintlock. As recorded by Capt. Meriwether Lewis (of Lewis and Clark fame), The implyments used by the Chinnooks Clatsops Cuth-lah-mahs &amp;c in hu...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Can a compass be thrown off by its surroundings?
Yes, there are certainly areas where there magnetic anomalies. There is on in the Kursk area of Russia that is caused by a very large iron deposits. There is also one in Africa that they are not certain of the cause, but the effect on a person's compass is described as, &#x201C;If you were on the...
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about 4 years ago
Question Can a compass be thrown off by its surroundings?
Would it be possible for a compass be affected by its surroundings, such as a large iron deposit or other rocks to the point where it is not working correctly? I am not talking about declination but rather a change that is specific to a local area. Is this possible and if so, how would one detect ...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Under what circumstances would I wish to extend the handle length of a snow saw?
The main reason that I found is for cutting a cornice, sometimes referred to as the bombs of the backcountry. Extending the handle allows one to cut it without being too close, and as for why one would want to cut a cornice, The advantage of cutting cornices is that it allows backcountry skie...
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about 4 years ago
Question Is it warmer to sleep with an empty bladder?
One of the recommendations for sleeping warm is to empty your bladder before bed, When your bladder is full, your body is expending energy keeping that liquid warm. If you empty it out, your body needs to expend a little less energy to stay warm. Source There has been some discussion on this a...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Why do I always wake up freezing?
Here are some other things you can try, Fill a water bottle with hot water, wrap it in a t-shirt and put that inside your sleeping bag. Don't drink warm tea before you go to bed, as that will increase the chances of having to get out of bed or being uncomfortable all night long. On the other hand, ...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: How to cross rivers or streams at night or in darkness?
There are a couple of things you will want to do. Headlamps are essential as you will want the full use of both of your arms. The darkness will make it more difficult, mostly because you be able to see much less. The darkness can also mess with your judgement of how far things are. In mountainous a...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Is the Park Service continuing its case to re-rename Yosemite Park's historic landmarks?
The name change is going ahead, at least for now The Ahwahnee Hotel and other Yosemite National Park landmarks soon will be renamed amid a legal dispute between the government and the facilities' outgoing operator. On March 1, the famed Ahwahnee &#x2014; a name affixed to countless trail gui...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Can I use a quilt with a bivi bag?
Probably, but it likely wouldn't keep you as warm underneath unless you wrapped it all the way around, in which case you have almost duplicated a sleeping bag. Depending on the temperature it might work great, or it could be miserable and a lot of that depends on you. Just try to test it out in saf...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Is it dangerous to rope together on an ascent of hard packed ice?
If the snow was hard packed enough that a self arrest is not possible, and there are no intermediate anchors, then if one person falls, they can take the whole team down with them. If that was the case then what they should have done is to have the first person place anchors as they went up, either ...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Can a compass reverse polarity?
They certainly can and it is caused by, Please be aware that a reverse polarity is caused by exposing your compass to articles with iron content (something as simple as being placed next to a pair of scissors or a knife for a length of time, microwaves, high tension wires, etc.). Source Mag...
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about 4 years ago
Question Can a compass reverse polarity?
Can a compass have its polarity reversed so that the end marked "north" points south and vice versa? If so, what could one do to prevent and fix this problem?
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Is it normal for a compass to develop an air bubble at high altitude?
I wouldn't call it normal, but it does happen and if the bubble is large enough it will effect your accuracy. In that case you may want to purchase a new one or if possible send it back to the manufacturer. From Silva's FAQ page We intend that our compasses are free of bubbles; however, if a sma...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: How to triangulate your position with a map and compass?
The basic idea behind triangulation is take multiple bearings with the compass to recognizable points and draw them on the map. Where they intersect is your location. You want the lines to be as close to perpendicular as possible, for the sake of accuracy. The reason is that when the lines are p...
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about 4 years ago
Question How to triangulate your position with a map and compass?
While navigating or orienteering with a map or compass one of the essential skills is the ability to find your position on the map with the aid of the compass. This can be important if you need to know your exact position. How should one do this?
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: What are the measurable prerequisites of strength and/or flexiblity for starting to climb in a climbing gym?
I am going to say that there aren't any. I have always heard stories of big beefy guys who can a zillion pull-ups getting out into real climbing and then realizing that there are very few features that remotely resemble pull up bars. For that matter I have gone climbing and rappelling with a person ...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: What kind of tree produces these long multi-seed pods?
I am going to say that the tree belongs to the Catalpa family. Here is a picture of the green bean pods. In the autumn they bear 20&#x2013;50 centimetres (7.9&#x2013;19.7 in) long fruits that resemble a slender bean pod full of small flat seeds, each with two thin wings to aid in wind dispers...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Can Propane lose its stink?
Yes it can. Odor Loss. On rare occasions, propane can lose its odor. Several things can cause this including: Air, water, or rust in a propane tank or cylinder can reduce propane odor concentration. If the propane is leaking underground, its passage through soil may reduce the smell of ...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: How do you remove leeches from your eyeball?
This story says that a saline solution was used and it was not pulled off. Dr Fogg says tweezers were not an option as simply pulling the leech off could leave its head lodged in the eyeball, leading to infection. A check of the medical literature revealed two other suggestions - using an an...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: What factors should I consider to prepare high protein meals using a single camping stove and pan?
I am pretty certain that this is what you are looking for, Image Source Two tablespoons (32g) of the stuff has 8g of protein and 16g of fat. Source It easy to carry, does not require refrigeration or cooking. Typically I eat it straight out of the jar with a spoon and can go through one of the ...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Foxes in the living room - what causes this behavior?
This site says that it has to do with food. Foxes are drawn into houses by the availability of food. They will take advantage of open windows, doors, and pet flaps to come inside and wreak havoc. The pests makes messes of kitchens as they forage for fish, meats, fruits, vegetables, and even garba...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Sleeping in a sleeping bag only compared to tent camping
A tent would protect you from rain and snow, and it would keep you warmer since it will create a warm pocket of air around you. It would also keep the bugs away. However, if rain and/or snow and bugs aren't an issue, then I would totally recommend sleeping outside without one, because then you can s...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: What kind of tree produces these seed pods looking like spiky balls?
That is a sweet gum tree. The distinctive compound fruit is hard, dry, and globose,1&#x2013;1.5 inches (25&#x2013;38 mm) in diameter, composed of numerous (40-60) capsules.[13] Each capsule, containing one to two small seeds, has a pair of terminal spikes (for a total of 80-120 spikes). When the ...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Why would one aim off when navigating with a map and compass?
The reason is that you could miss your destination and hit a trail and know that you are almost there, but not know which way to turn. So if you were to go straight for the destination, and because of Murphy or errors or whatever and you ended up at either Point A or Point B, you wouldn't be certa...
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about 4 years ago
Question Why would one aim off when navigating with a map and compass?
Sometimes while navigating with map and compass, the advice is to aim off i.e. to aim either to the left or right of the intended destination, as opposed to straight for it. Why and when would one want to do this?
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: How can I tell the difference between an American Crow, and a Common Raven that lives in America?
According to this article, (How to Tell a Raven From a Crow): Ravens often travel in pairs, while crows are seen in larger groups. Also, watch the bird&#x2019;s tail as it flies overhead. The crow&#x2019;s tail feathers are basically the same length, so when the bird spreads its tail, it opens li...
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about 4 years ago
Question What situations/locations would be ideal for using a solar stove while backpacking?
After answering this question, I am wondering when it would be useful to cook with a solar stove. It certainly wouldn't make sense in an area that is constantly overcast or when speed is of the essence but there are probably times when it would. Personally, I like the idea of not having to carry my...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Are there any techniques to cooking food when camping in the wild by harnessing the energy of the sun?
Certainly, what you are looking for is a backpacking solar stove. Here are some examples. SunFlair Solar Oven SOLTAC's CookSack Or if you really wanted to, you could attempt to build one yourself.
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Via ferrata equipment maintenance
For storing the harness, REI recommends Transport a harness in its supplied bag and always keep it away from sharp objects, ice screws, crampons, direct sunlight, corrosive substances (e.g., battery acids, gasoline, solvents, bleach) or any other potentially damaging objects. If your harness did ...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Is all ocular fluid potable?
According to Wikipedia the Aqueous humour is composed of, Amino acids: transported by ciliary muscles 98% water Electrolytes Ascorbic acid Glutathione Immunoglobulins So it is probably true. I did find a report that said that cows that die of nitrate poisoning will hav...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Best food to attract Blue Tits
It looks like the problem might not be the types of food, but the feeder itself. In the past blue tits had a monopoly on the relatively tricky kind of feeders people put out. The tiny birds were uniquely able to feed from upside coconut shells full of fat, or perch on strings of monkey nuts. They...
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about 4 years ago
Question Why are carabiners so much weaker if the gate is open?
Carabiners like this, are marked with the force rating. The one in this picture is rated, 20kn the long way 8kn the short way 5kn with the gate open Why are carabiners so much weaker when the gate is open?
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Can I re-use a via ferrata carabiner/harness for climbing?
The carabiners are definitely good to go as those are pretty standard ratings. Most climbers using climbing harnesses and not body harnesses, I would suggest that you buy a climbing harness as I think that it would work better and be more comfortable for you.
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Can sunlight be used to purify water?
It is possible, here is the Wikipedia article on it. You do have to check that the plastic in the waterbottle doesn't prevent the UV light peneatrating the bottle. Some glass or PVC materials may prevent ultraviolet light from reaching the water.[13] Commercially available bottles made of PET are...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: What is the most efficient strategy to melt snow using a stove?
You want to have some water in the pot/pan, as otherwise you will scorch it. It doesn't have to be too much, just enough to cover the bottom. Then you would just want to keep stirring it.
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: How can I tell if there's a living snail in the shell, without picking it up?
If you wanted to pick one up without a live snail inside, I would say finding one on dry sand without a trail that looks like it has been there a while. The signs of that would be, being flipped upside down and having small debris like sand or dirt on top of it. This video shows a sea snail moving ...
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about 4 years ago
Question If you hear a mountain lion screaming, how close is it?
Female mountain lions will scream to attract a mate, and males will do it as well. This YouTube video and this one both have audio of what it sounds like. Given how loud it sounds, would there be any way of estimating how far away the mountain lion is?
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Where and when can I see the most seals in Cape Cod, Massachusetts?
According to this web page the best time of year is, Chatham Fish Pier -- Chatham's fish pier is the place to be when local fishermen unload their catch of the day. See the hilarious show as resident seals beg for lunch. The Pier is open all year, but prime time to see the seals is May through Au...
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about 4 years ago
Question Would it be warmer to sleep at the bottom or on the side of a valley?
Given that temperature decreases with altitude, and yet inversions happen where cold air is below warmer air, as a general rule of thumb, where would the warmest place to sleep be? Here is one place that would be a good example. It's on North Fork of the San Joaquin River in the Ansel Adams Wildern...
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about 4 years ago
Question Are there fish in lakes with a lots of glacial flour?
Often times in high alpine lakes you will see lakes like this, where the color comes from the rock/glacial flour suspended in the water. The lakes and sometimes even streams are very pretty, but if one wanted to fish there, would there be any fish or would the amount of rock flour in the water p...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: What animal could strip all the bark off the lower 7 feet of this tree?
The culprits probably looked something like this. Bears would leave vertical scratch marks, and porcupines eat the outer bark as well, and the height rules out deer so that really leaves just the squirrels. The time of year also plays a part as bear damage typically happens during the spring whi...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Which types of animals would peel bark off this tree?
That was definitely a beaver. Nothing else has quite the chewing power of a beaver, for example accoring to Wikipedia, these trees were cut by beavers in a single night. Based on the color of those chips, I would say that you were there less than a week if not sooner from when the beaver was chew...
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about 4 years ago
Question What type of weather conditions would lead to being above the clouds while mountaineering?
Its always been cool to be climbing a mountain and look down, and realize that you are high enough that there are clouds below you. Here are some pictures from Wikipedia of what this looks like. I would think that the weather would have a great deal to do with when this happens, what are good ...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: What are differences between higher and lower shoes other than ankle support?
There are going to be two main differences that I can think of. The first is that higher shoes are going to weigh more, simply because there is more shoe. The second is that that you are going to be much clunkier/less graceful in higher shoes/boots than in lower. Partly because of the weight and pa...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: How do you correct Google Earth's incorrect slope percentage?
The reason that this happens is that instead of calculating the slope correctly as Rise over Run, Google Earth calculates it as Rise over Hypotenuse. So if you had your standard 3x4x5 right triangle, The correct steepness would be 3/4 (75%) while Google Earth would show it as 3/5 (60%). To solv...
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about 4 years ago
Question How do you correct Google Earth's incorrect slope percentage?
I often use Google earth to plan trips. One part of that is marking paths and seeing how steep they are. However Google Earth severely underestimated the steepness of slopes. For instance here is a line drawn up the Glacier Point Apron in Yosemite Valley that Google Earth estimates at a maximum st...
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about 4 years ago
Question What mountain is used in the MacOS Sierra desktop background?
I have been curious as to which mountain is in this picture. I have tried a reverse Google image search but all I have found is pictures of computers. Presumably it is somewhere in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: What is this mountain seen from above the Banks Lake region of Washington State?
I am going to say that that is Mt. Baker. Here is a zoomed in version of the above picture. Here is a Google Earth image of Mt Baker from the south east. Looking at these pictures, there are two things that stand out as very similar to me. The diamond shaped ridge to the left of the summit and...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: What affects the acclimatization process?
Bringing gear up when climbing high won't really affect the rate. There is a possibility that a higher pressure system could increase the amount of oxygen, but true acclimatization takes long enough that it probably won't matter. According to the Altitude Research Center Women are more suscepti...
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about 4 years ago
Question What should one look for in a bivy sack?
After a rather unpleasant experience with my current bivy sack, I am looking to replace it. I know that I want one that will hold up in rain, but what else should I look for?
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about 4 years ago
Question What are these numbers on the back of a pocket transit for?
I have a pocket transit and on the back are a bunch of numbers. They can be seen in these images here, here, and here. What are these numbers used for?
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about 4 years ago
Question How do you remove a fishhook from a human?
If one is out fishing and someone gets a fishhook stuck in them, what are the different techniques for removing it?
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about 4 years ago
Question How should you treat an open wound in the backcountry?
If someone were to get an open wound in the back country, say a knife slipped while cooking dinner and sliced the person, how would you treat that? We already have one question about using whiskey, however I would like to know the correct treatment assuming you have a up to date first aid kit.
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about 4 years ago
Question What features should I look for in a satellite emergency device?
I am thinking of buying a satellite check in device. I often go alone, and would like to upgrade from the system of of always letting someone know where I am going and when to expect me back. The problem with that system is that on a multi-day trip, it may be days before someone comes looking for yo...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Is whiskey a good disinfectant?
This was done on the American Frontier, and during the American Civil War. According to this journal from the American Medical Association printed in 1893, it is a good antiseptic. Apparently, alcohol works by breaking down the protein bonds. It looks like this question has been asked by many other ...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: How can I perfect my backyard ice rink?
It looks like to build a homemade Zamboni, you need some type of powered transport like a four-wheeler, riding lawnmower or a kid on a tricycle. Then you need a supply of hot water and something to spread it out behind the vehicle. The plans that I have seen usually have a water tank that has a hose ...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: When hiking, why is the right of way given to people going up?
It is much easier going down than going up, and it is easier for the people descending to stop than the ones going up. The people going up will be working much harder, and be more irritated by having to wait for someone.
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Tips for leading project climbs
What I would suggest is that you practice leading routes that you have done without leading many times. As you have found out, taking the sharp end of the rope adds an extra amount of difficulty, both mentally and physically. I would do the route over and over again until you know all of the moves ...
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about 4 years ago
Question What are the correct techniques for rescuing someone who has fallen through the ice?
If someone where to fall through the ice on a lake or a pond, what would be some correct ways of rescuing them? This question is inspired mostly by this video, where one person gets too close to the melted part and falls through and some one comes to attempt a rescue and falls in, and so on, until 1...
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about 4 years ago
Question How much will the ceiling of a snow cave drop by during the night?
Every time I have slept in a snow cave, I have woken up to a ceiling that was noticeably lower than when I went to sleep. Is there a good rule of thumb for estimating how much lower it will get? Apparently, its not just me that has noticed this phenomenon. There are stories from boy scouts who est...
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about 4 years ago
Question How dangerous are kangaroos?
After watching this video of a man punching a kangaroo to rescue his dog, I am wondering how dangerous a kangaroo is to a human on foot? I am sure that there are a lot of other things in Australia that are dangerous as well, but are kangaroos something that a person would need to worry about?
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about 4 years ago
Question Would a Canada Goose deliberately try to keep a section of water from freezing?
I just passed the pond where the geese in this question are, and it turns out that while some of the geese are sleeping ontop of the ice, there is a section right there, about 20ft by 80 that is open and some are swimming around in it. For this particular pond it seems unlikely that there are hot s...
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about 4 years ago
Question When rappelling, should a screwgate locking carabiner be orientated up or down?
For the locking caribiner that connects the person's harness to their rappel device/ropes, should the locking caribiner's gate be toward the top or bottom of the setup when using a screwgate type locking carabiner? For reference, this is what I mean by up or down.
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: How long does it take for trash to become a historical artifact (in the United States)?
After 50 years, trash becomes protected as a historical artifact. It turns out that while you are not allowed to leave cans behind, you are also not allowed to "clean up" historic cans as they are an important part of the history of the area.
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about 4 years ago
Question How long does it take for trash to become a historical artifact (in the United States)?
How long does it take for trash like beer cans, old mattress springs, or glass bottles to go from trash and need to be packed out to being a historic artifact with archaeological significance?
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Why would archery season be either before or after rifle season?
In Wyoming, the archery season comes first to coincide with the rut, where the elk and deer are breeding. This makes it much easier for the archery hunters as it is possible to call the elk or deer in close enough to shoot, sometimes to within 10 yards. It is extremely difficult to get close enough...
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about 4 years ago
Question Why would a Canada Goose sleep on a frozen pond?
I just passed one of the town parks, and there was a flock of Canada geese sleeping on the frozen lake. It seemed like that would be a rather cold place to sleep, is there a reason beyond the possibility of predators why they would do that? The lake is completely frozen, and the surface is hard with...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Why are there separate seasons for archery and firearm hunting for deer?
I think the main reason for this is that the hunting styles are a lot different between the two. Archery hunters often don't wear orange and get very close to the their prey while gun hunters wear orange and are able to hunt at ranges of hundreds of yards. Combining those activities at the same time...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: Correct and incorrect slip-slap-slide belay technique
Here are the steps on the the clip and slide / slip-slap-slide method. First here is how you should hold the rope when you are not pulling in slack. To pull in rope, the left hand pulls the rope straight towards the person and the right pulls the brake strand towards it stopping when the left han...
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about 4 years ago
Answer A: What can I do about a rock climbing ban?
I think that it is easier to keep access, than to get it back, so I will start with that. Always follow Leave No Trace and make certain that your activities do not create any eyesores. Volunteer to help pickup after other people and clean up the trash they leave. Protect the reputation of the climb...
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about 4 years ago
Question What are the pros and cons of using a red colored light source for hiking at night?
I have heard the argument that red light is better because it helps preserve your night vision, however it is less bright than white light. Are there other pros and cons that I am missing or circumstances in which one would be highly preferred to the other?
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over 4 years ago
Question How do you assess the weather when getting an alpine start?
When getting an early alpine start (3-5 am or earlier) it will probably be before the sun comes up. Hopefully, the weather will be better in the morning (that is often the point of an alpine start), but the lack of sunlight can make it difficult to see the clouds. It usually possible to tell if ther...
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over 4 years ago
Question How do you predict weather with an altimeter while mountaineering and or backpacking?
I do know that if your elevation rises while staying in the same position, the pressure is decreasing and that it is a sign of bad weather incoming and a decrease in elevation means that the pressure is increasing. However, how often should an altimeter be calibrated to the known altitude from a top...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: How do you calculate the turnaround and start times when summitting mountains?
The first thing to know is what is the latest you want to be on the summit and aim to be off before then. Then you calculate the estimated time it will take to summit and return. The start time is the the lastest time minus half of the trip time. So if thunderstorms are know to hit the mountain sta...
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over 4 years ago
Question How do you calculate the turnaround and start times when summitting mountains?
In mountaineering, the turnaround time is the point in time at which the party will turn around and head down the mountain regardless of how close to the summit. This is typically done to make certain that everyone is down before afternoon storms roll in and put the party at risk. If I am preparing ...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: How do you safely ascend and descend the Half Dome cable route?
First off, don't even think of attempting this if its raining or thunderstorms are nearby. Not only will water make the rock slick, but the prominence and the metal cables make people on the route prime targets for lighting strikes. You are going to want to wear grippy shoes because of the slick gra...
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over 4 years ago
Question How do you safely ascend and descend the Half Dome cable route?
The easiest way up Half Dome is the cable route (rated Class 3), which looks like this. As six people have died on this route since it was put in place, and it looks really steep and scary, how can I ascend it safely?
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over 4 years ago
Question How far above a waterfall should you be to safely cross?
A lot of the fatal accidents in Yosemite National park come from people getting swept over waterfalls. Yes, the falls in Yosemite have fences and warning signs and yet people still ignore them. If you were in a wilderness area and crossing a stream/river with a waterfall downstream of the crossing a...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Why would people descend to sleep while acclimatizing?
What they are doing is following the maxim "climb high, sleep low". Going too fast will cause altitude sickness. Humans have a lower respiration rate while sleeping, which is why they can be okay at higher altitudes while awake and yet need to descend to sleep. The accepted guideline is not to incr...
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over 4 years ago
Question How do you deal with a picky eater on a backpacking trip?
Obviously, the solution to this problem is to pack food that everyone enjoys eating. However, according to Murphy, this doesn't always happen. Also, sometimes the best tasting food is ruled out by weight/price/space constraints. So if you are on a backpacking trip with people who are complaining abo...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: What's the difference between an oar and a paddle?
According to Wikipedia, a paddle is held by the person and an oar is connected to the boat in some manner, such as a rowlock.
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: What is this gray bird that has black stripes on the side and around the head?
That is a Chukar partridge. For more information I would suggest the wikipedia article.
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: First skills to learn for mountaineering
The very first skill I would learn is to keep putting one foot in front of the other. Most of the turn arounds I have seen while mountaineering have been from people not willing to do so. It amazing what can be accomplished simply by keeping on keeping on. Beyond that it never hurts to be in better ...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: How to take care of an acrophobic person while hiking?
I have never liked heights, but I have still done a lot of things because I wanted to get to the top more than I was afraid of heights. I think that the best thing to do is to let this friend decide on where he would like to go, and let his motivation decide how much risk (real or perceived) you tak...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Does feeding migratory birds in the fall affect the timing of migration?
It takes a lot of energy for a bird to migrate, and comes with numerous risks, so if it is possible for it to stay where it is, not migrating can give it an evolutionary advantage. An example would be Canadian geese who live year round in Florida. I think that it depends a lot on the area and specie...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: What's the purpose of the huge amount of stone piles on the trails in Gran Canaria
I don't think that there is really a better answer to why than ab2's comment that people are copying the existing ones. As for what to do about it, that looks like an awful lot of them, but if found in a small group in a wilderness area, well accidents do happen and gravity is a thing.
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over 4 years ago
Question How to assess the likelihood of a tree falling in a forest?
Sometimes while camping in forests, there will be dead trees around, or in forests where there was a fire, a high percentage of the trees will be dead. While it is not extremely likely that a tree will fall on you while sleeping, it has happened, with fatal results. If moving out of the forest is no...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Does chambering a round multiple times degrade its accuracy?
It turns out that repeatedly chambering a round should be avoided, not because of accuracy, but for safety reasons. When a bullet is repeatedly chambered, it can cause what is called set-back where the bullet is pushed further and further into the brass case. This can cause higher pressures than the ...
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over 4 years ago
Question Does chambering a round multiple times degrade its accuracy?
My standard procedure when hunting is to hunt with a round in the chamber, safety on and as soon as the day is over or while getting into a vehicle to remove the bullet from the chamber. This can happen a lot since it's not unusual to go several days without firing a shot, does chambering the round ...
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over 4 years ago
Question How do you remove a bullet from a cartridge?
While reloading some cartridges, I was on the last step of crimping the bullet into the brass case, and made and mistake and the brass was compressed wrong. The other reason for removing a bullet is if one missed a step and didn't put the powder in first. If a cartridge without powder is put into a ...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: What does the three different volume specifications mean for the Gregory Whitney backpack?
It looks like those the backpack comes in three sizes, Small, Medium and Large and what you are seeing is the volume for each size.
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over 4 years ago
Question How would you help a snapping turtle cross the road?
Regardless of why they would want to cross the road, doing so is dangerous for turtles, especially since a certain percentage of the population will try to run them over. However, snapping turtles are dangerous enough that I am certainly not going to try and pick one up, so how would I help one get ...
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over 4 years ago
Question How can you tell if roadkill is safe to eat?
In some places in the US, it is legal to take roadkill home and eat it while in other places the meat is donated. If it was legal where you are, how would you tell if the meat is still good?
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over 4 years ago
Question What are the pro and cons of two stage vs single stage triggers for hunting?
In addition to getting a trigger with a lighter pull weight, I also have the option of switching from a single stage to a two stage trigger. What would the pros and cons of doing so be?
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over 4 years ago
Question Will a lighter trigger pull help me be more accurate?
The trigger on my hunting rifle has a rather heavy pull and doesn't break very well, will getting a trigger with a lighter pull weight help me be more accurate?
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over 4 years ago
Question How do you keep rodents out of your vehicle when it's parked at the trailhead?
On some backpacking trips a car could be left for a couple of weeks, what can I do to ensure that when I return the mice aren't inside and the squirrels are leaving the wiring alone?
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over 4 years ago
Question What are the pro and cons of vacuum sealed vs mylar bags for DIY dehydrated foods?
For packaging dehydrated foods for backpacking, the two options that I can think of are mylar bags and vacuum-sealed bags. What are the pros and cons of each method?
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: What breed is this very large, black, turtle/tortoise found in the Northeast United States?
Based on this list of turtles in Massachusetts, and this one as well as the pointed nose and the jagged back shell, I am going to say that this is a common snapping turtle. For more information I would suggest Wikipedia. It a good thing that you husband didn't touch it, because they are capable of...
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over 4 years ago
Question What qualities should I look for when purchasing aiders/etriers?
Aiders/Etriers are standard equipment for aid climbing, what qualities should I look for when purchasing a pair? I have used them before, but they were always borrowed from other people and I am looking to get my own.
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Can a cooler (warm weather) sleeping bag be used when combined with a warmer (cold weather) under quilt for hammock camping?
It all depends on your tolerance for being miserable if it turns out to be too cold. I have personally gone without a sleeping bag at all at around 40 degrees Fahrenheit (4&#xB0;C), and survived, but it wasn't particular comfortable. The odds are you aren't going to freeze to death with your setup, ...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: How can I find north from the stars without recognizable constellations?
What you will want to do is to find which way a star is moving. The way to do this, is to line up two objects pointing towards where the star is currently at, like so. Then wait 15-20 minutes for the star to move and compare its new position to the old one marked by your sticks. As illustrated abov...
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over 4 years ago
Question How can I find north from the stars without recognizable constellations?
If I am trying to find out which way is north at night, and I can see stars, but not the North Star or the Southern cross or other recognizable constellations, because the terrain is limiting my view, how can I do so?
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Making a compass from magnet and needle -- which end is north?
What you would have to know beforehand, is which way is generally north, by other methods, like the North Star, or from the direction of the sun. I don't mean that you could tell which way is north precisely without a compass or gps, but one of the ends should be obviously wrong. For instance in the ...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Is it within Leave No Trace to spread someone's ashes in a wilderness area?
It is, however there are some guidelines to follow, and if it happens inside a national park in the United States, a permit may be required. The guidelines are, The ashes should be scattered and not buried. They should be scattered away from water sources and developed areas. No marker should be ...
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over 4 years ago
Question Is it within Leave No Trace to spread someone's ashes in a wilderness area?
While in the Wind River Mountains, I found a bronze plaque that marked the spot where a person's ashes where scattered, and while that was done in the early 1930s, it made me wonder if it would still be considered acceptable today (the spreading of ashes, not the plaque)?
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Is it effective to use mosquito repellent under clothes?
Hopefully, if your clothes are thick enough, the mosquitos won't be able to bite through. Also as DEET apparently works by messing with the mosquitos sense of smell, it won't be as effective because it would first have to go through your clothes. If they are biting through your clothes, it would be ...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Using Gri Gri 2 as a Self Belaying Device
I have done this before, and it not all that different from jugging up a rope. What you will want to do it to attach the knots (typically a figure eight on a bight) to your belay loop with a locking carbiner. That way, if the gri gri was to fail, you would only fall until you the rope went tight. Ty...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: A method to retrieve a carabiner
I believe that what you are referring to is called the "Texas Rope Trick". I hope that it's obvious that this is an incredibly risky idea and that you are better off just leaving the carabiner.
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Is Off Trail Travel Between Lakes in the Humphreys Basin, CA Feasible
I have done a good bit of exploring in the Ansel Adams Wilderness north there, and nothing on that map would cause me any concern as the steep parts look avoidable. Just stick to the flatter parts and remember that, If the map and the terrain disagree, trust the terrain. Swiss Army Aphorism ...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: What Suction Cups Were Used To Climb Trump Tower?
It looks like they were four NV11 Fairs Air Powered Suction Cups as pointed out by this article.
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over 4 years ago
Question What should you do if your sleeping bag gets soaking wet at night?
I spent one really miserable night because I found out during the rainstorm that my bivy sack wasn't waterproof. Drying it out wasn't an option because of the rain and moving some where else also wasn't an option because of the terrain. My temporary solution was to sleep in my rain gear (pants and ...
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over 4 years ago
Question Would it hurt anything to leave a canister stove attached overnight?
If I cook a hot dinner on a canister stove and plan on cooking a hot breakfast in the morning, can I leave the stove on the canister overnight or would it be better to take it off and reattach in the morning?
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: What is the working range of TRUBLUE auto belay?
Its not that it won't catch you, its that if you are outside of your lane it will cause a pendulum fall and you might swing into someone else or the wall. As it is their gear and climbing outside your lane will cause extra wear and tear, in addition to causing risk to other people, the courteous thi...
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over 4 years ago
Question How much insulation does a wet synthetic sleeping bag provide?
One of the selling points of a synthetic sleeping bag is that it retains its thermal properties even when wet. However, one of the most miserable nights I have ever had was in a wet synthetic sleeping bag in a rainstorm. Would there be a percentage reduction of the temperature rating or another way...
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over 4 years ago
Question How would a dragonfly get to above 13,400 ft (4000m)?
I found this dragonfly, here, at around 13,400 ft. The coordinates are 43&#xB0;10'52.96"N, 109&#xB0;39'17.74"W if anyone would like to check the location themselves. It didn't look like it was moving and as it was probably around 40 degrees Fahrenheit (4&#xB0;C), I wouldn't have expected it t...
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over 4 years ago
Question How to safely store a propane/butane/isobutane canister in a vehicle?
The canisters that I have purchased so far have included a warning not to let the canister get above 120 degrees Fahrenheit. It looks like the inside of car can get well above that, hot enough to bake cookies. I would prefer not to leave on a backpacking trip with an extra canister left in my vehic...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Alternatives for sealing Mylar food packs?
It looks like what you need is something hot enough to melt the sides of the Mylar bag together to seal it. Two DIY options are a clothing iron or a hair straightening iron. If using the clothing iron, a flat reflective metal surface underneath would probably help. In either case it would probably...
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over 4 years ago
Question How would you protect yourself from Rocky Mountain Goats?
After finding out that Rocky Mountain Goats have killed one person and have been known to harass hikers, how would you protect yourself from an aggressive goat? In most cases I would guess that simply staying a good distance away would be enough, but what if the goat decides to try and gore you?
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Will a Rocky Mountain Goat attack a person?
The only case I kind find of a human being killed by a mountain goat happened in Olympic National Park in 2010. It seems that attacks extremely rare but have happened. It that particular case the mountain goat was known to harass hikers and had been around humans before. As far as why a mountain goa...
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over 4 years ago
Question What are good ways of predicting incoming weather from the downwind side of a mountain?
There are a lot of mountaineering routes that go up the downwind side of a mountain. Like the CMC route on Mt. Moran in the Tetons or the Gooseneck Glacier route on Gannet Peak. The added danger of a route like this is that weather could build up on the upwind side, out of sight and then roll in wit...
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over 4 years ago
Question How would one assess the safety of a wooden bridge?
While backpacking in the Wind River Range in Wyoming, I had to cross this bridge. The piece of paper on the left support said, Due to recent high water events, this bridge may be damaged. Assess and cross at your own risk. I think the warning was aimed more at people who were using horses an...
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over 4 years ago
Question How to keep a llama from being eaten by a bear?
I am pretty sure that from a bear's point of view a llama counts as food, but as its not possible to put a llama into a bear can or suspend it from a tree branch, how would I keep it from being eaten on a backpacking trip?
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: What are the best methods to clean out a fire pits and dispose of the ash?
The practice recommended by the Forest Service here, and here is, When the ashes are COLD and DEAD OUT, the ashes can simply be scattered outside of the campsite. I would say that the more widely spread the better, as that decreases the visual impact. I would certainly commend you if you chos...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: What can I do to discourage people from littering in the back country?
Make certain that you are part of the solution and not the problem, never leave any of your own garbage behind. As people are less likely to litter a clean area, remove as much of other people's trash as you can. Document and report violators to the authorities.
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over 4 years ago
Question What can I do to discourage people from littering in the back country?
There are few feelings worse than hiking deep into an area that should be pristine and finding garbage. What are some steps that I could take to help prevent or lessen this?
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over 4 years ago
Question How to scuba dive safely in waters that have Great White Sharks?
This is something I have been thinking about since answering this question about guessing the size of a shark. What precautions would a scuba diver take or is this something that is simply avoided?
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Can I guess the size of a shark by the size of its dorsal fin?
I don't think there is a general guideline, however I did find a guide by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations that has the calculations. The calculations for a Great White are on page 38, and the directions for the calculations start at page 13. I wish I could find a simple r...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: How do you make an emergency water filter and purifier?
Here is what I have found for a very basic set up with a cheap water bottle. The water will be pored through the top through gravel, sand, charcoal and finally either a screen or another mechanism like a hankerchief to prevent the filtering substances from getting into the water. Like this, | |...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Is dryer lint worth using as a fire starter even if it's also a pollutant?
I think that this is one of those things that has to be left to an individual's judgment. Some people would consider just starting the fire to be polluting even if it was done in accordance with Leave no Trace principles. If this is something that bothers you, why not simply err on the conservative ...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: How can I tie my laces so they don't come undone?
Instead of a knot, how about a shoelace buckle? Simply pull the laces through with the button pushed in, and then release and let it hold them. To take the shoes off, push the button and pull the laces through to create enough slack to remove.
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Is there a M1A1 carbine replica production?
There are 3 different manufacturers currently making these. Auto Ordance Inland Manufacturing Fulton Armory There is also a stock for 10-22 rifles that make it look like an m1 carbine but still fires 22 ammo. Of course, you can also still buy the originals.
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over 4 years ago
Question Is it an acceptable Leave no Trace practice to bury ruined food?
I am only considering those situations where human waste can be buried, since if that has to be carried out in a wag bag, then the food should be as well. If someone burns the oatmeal to a crisp, or drops the flour into a muddy stream or otherwise completely ruins food, can it be buried in a cat hol...
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over 4 years ago
Question What are the pros and cons of ice axe leashes?
My ice ax came with a leash already on it and I have never had any problems with it, but almost all of the other ice axes that I have seen in use lacked one. One obvious pro is in case of dropping the ice ax, a leash will prevent it from sliding down the mountain and a con is the constant switching...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: How can I tell if a wild animal has rabies?
From the Humane Society Nocturnal animals active in the daytime or vice versa. Excessive drooling Lack of fear of humans Aggressive behavior It does note that there is both a "furious" form where they may act agitated and a "dumb" form where they may act drunk. From the Merck Veterinary Manual ...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: What proven alternatives are there to DEET?
Here is what I have found from REI Picaridin Permethrin Oil of lemon eucalyptus Various Plant Oils Another option is to protect all exposed skin with a head net, long pants, long sleeved shirt, and gloves. For ticks wearing long pants and preventing things from crawling up them with duck tape or...
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over 4 years ago
Question How should one properly dispose of a rabid animal carcass?
If while hunting I come across a rabid animal and I kill it, both to end its suffering and to prevent it from spreading rabies, what should I do with the body? I wouldn't want another animal to eat the carcass and get infected, and I don't want to put myself at risk either.
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: How do you stabilize a sextant for use on a boat in rough water?
Here is what I have found for taking sights in rough seas. Practice Get a feel for how the vessel is rolling so that sights can be timed to when the vessel is at its most stable which will most often be at the top of a wave. Heaving-to can reduce the motion. Take multiple good sightings and average...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: What to be aware of if lightning strikes close to me?
Close enough to shock i.e. an indirect strike According to the National Lightning Safety Institute lightning has been observed to arc out 40 meters and how far it conducts varies. Possible outcomes Death Concussive injury Burns Lichtenberg figures Blunt force trauma Cardiac Arrhythmias Kidney dam...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Any tips to prevent theft while tent camping alone in a caravan park?
Here are a couple of tips. Make it harder for them to steal anything, roll up your vehicle's windows and lock its doors. Make your stuff less attractive to thieves, cover valuables with a blanket and don't flash expensive gear or jewelry. Exude confidence, look people in the eye, walk with a confid...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: What features should I look for in a scope for a .308?
Here are some characteristics that I can give you for a good scope, selecting the individual one will be up to you Variable Magnification for both short and long distances. Nitrogen filled to prevent fogging. Has a sunshade to prevent glare. Smaller MOA on the turrets for sighting it in. (1/8 MOA i...
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over 4 years ago
Question Do I need to worry about inadvertently creating a distress signal while using a space tarp?
If I use a space tarp (basically a heavy-duty reusable space blanket) as a sunshade or as a ground tarp with the shiny side facing up, do I need to worry that someone might see it and think that I am in trouble? People often suggest that a space blanket could be used to signal for help, would a 5ft ...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: How much kayaking experience is needed for a trip on the Alabama Scenic River Trail?
It looks like the entire trail is 631 miles long, so how much experience is needed will depend on where you go. The map does show some Class 3 rapids and portages (which are pretty miserable) but it does look like it would be possible to find an easy stretch of the river with no portages. The main re...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Can I expect a mountain stream to have less water in the morning, even when it is not primarily fed by meltwater?
I think the best answer to this question is going to be It Depends Even if it's not glacier fed, the melting snow of ice could have an impact and increase the water flow during the afternoon. The effect could be affected by the distance from the source, if any dams are upstream, and the time of y...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Knot to attach gear to a beam
I can think of multiple options for solving this problem. Tensionless Hitch i.e. wrap the rope around the beam enough times that it doesn't slip and unwrap to lower. Loop a sling over the beam, connect the ends with a carabiner and then counterbalance the items. Tie one strand of parachute cord to ...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Training to Circumambulate Around Mount Kailash
According to this webpage, the trail starts at 15,000 feet and includes a 18,000 ft pass. My recommendation would be to do some aerobic exercises, to prepare for the lower oxygen levels. I sure that any trip would include an acclimatization phase, but being prepared would certainly help. Also, if you...
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over 4 years ago
Question How to teach situational awareness for the outdoors?
By situational awareness I mean (but certainly don't limit it to): Looking behind to familiarize yourself with the return journey. Looking ahead to see what the best route will be. Knowing the approximate time of day. Knowing your approximate location. Keeping one eye on the sky for incoming weat...
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: What to do when a moose blocks the trail?
Having been around moose before, I would say that is would have been better to either stop and wait for the moose to leave or swing in a wide loop around the moose. In some areas like Grand Teton National Park, it is illegal to approach closer than 25 yards and you can be given a ticket. I have nev...
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over 4 years ago
Question What do I need to consider when rock climbing at night?
One of my dream climbs is to climb Snake Dike on Half Dome at night with a full moon. Are there any special considerations for rock climbing at night beyond bringing headlamps and extra batteries and dressing warmer than normal?
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over 4 years ago
Answer A: Where can I find an online elevation profile of the Cohos trail?
My suggestion would be to create a path in Google Earth and then view the elevation profile of the path. Here is an example of what that would look like, One caveat, Google Earth underestimates the steepness because instead of calculating slope as rise/run it uses rise/hypotenuse.
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over 4 years ago